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Environmental fate & pathways

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The rate and extent to which vanadium carbide produces soluble (bio)available ionic and other vanadium-bearing species in environmental media is limited. Based on results of a standard transformation/dissolution test according to OECD Series No 29, the dissolution at a loading of 1 mg VC/L results after 7 days in dissolved vanadium levels of 21.2 μg/L and 15.7 μg/L at pH 8 and pH 6, respectively. After 28 days, dissolved vanadium levels are at 41.7 μg/L at pH 8 and 27.8 μg/L at pH 6.

Further, the poor solubility of vanadium carbide is expected to determine its behaviour and fate in the environment, and subsequently its bioavailability and potential for bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity.

Vanadium carbide at pH 6 and 8, similar to other inorganic vanadium substances, transforms to the higher (V) oxidation state immediately upon dissolution (92% (V(V) after 24 hours) and is retained in pentavalent form (83-94% V(V) after 28 days). Therefore, a read-across approach is applied based on all information available for different inorganic vanadium substances and the fate of the limited vanadium ions released can ultimately be expected to be similar to the common fate of vanadium ions in the environment as described in the endpoint summary "V_Environmental fate and pathways". For further information on the applied read-across approach, please refer to the RAAF document "Read-across approach for environmental toxicity of the vanadium category, 2020" attached in IUCLID Section 13.

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