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EC number: 292-607-4
CAS number: 90640-86-1
Distillate from the fractional distillation of coal tar of bituminous coal, with boiling range of 240°C to 400°C (464°F to 752°F). Composed primarily of tri- and polynuclear hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds.
The substance distillates (coal tar), heavy
oils (anthracene oil high (> 50 ppm) BaP, AOH - composite
sample CS 06) [CAS no. 90640-86-1] is
a UVCB and consists of a complex and within limits variable combination
of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Manufacturing process
excludes low molecular aromatic hydrocarbons (1- and 2-ring aromatics)
as well as largely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons composed of 5 rings
Main components are phenanthrene, anthracene
(3-ring PAH), fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene
(4-ring PAH) representing approx. 30 % of total AOH, each accounting for
ca. 3 to 10 %. The majority of other components of AOH fall within the
molecular size range of these five substances.
A key component of AOH is phenanthrene (7 –
10 %). Fluoranthene and pyrene are present in similar amounts.In
analogy to the structure-related anthracene oil (low (< 50 ppm) BaP,
AOL) [CAS no. 90640-80-5], the key component phenanthrene is considered
to adequately represent the PAH-related environmental toxicity of AOH.
It is one of the most abundant components in AOH. Therefore,
phenanthrene is selected as marker substance to represent the
environmental toxicity of AOH.
Aquatic toxicity of AOH
(composite sample CS 06) itself was
only tested in short-term toxicity tests with fish and aquatic
invertebrates (daphnia) and in a
toxicity test with algae. Additional short-term tests have been
performed using three other closely structure-related tar oils:
anthracene oil (low (< 50 ppm) BaP, AOL - CS 07) [CAS
no. 90640-80-5], creosote oil,
acenaphthene fraction (wash oil, WO - CS 05) [CAS
no. 90640-84-9], and creosote [CAS
no. 8001-58-9]. All these oils are
UVCB substances of complex composition with a low water solubility
comprising PAH. The nature of constituents coincide closely, while the
content of single substances in the oils is of the same magnitude.
Therefore, these tar oils are used complementary to define the short
term aquatic toxicity of AOH.
Long-term aquatic toxicity tests with AOH
could not be located. Tests with phenanthrene are used instead to
characterise the long-term aquatic toxicity of AOH as phenanthrene was
selected as marker substance for the PAH related environmental toxicity
of AOH (see above).
(tests with AOH and other tar oils)
Due to the complex composition and variable
but low solubility of its components, water solubility of AOH is not
clearly defined. Depending on the quantity used, concentration of
material dissolved in saturated water samples is variable. Therefore,
water accommodated fractions (WAFs) have been used in aquatic toxicity
tests with AOH. The same holds for the other tar oils. Thus, results of
short-term tests with tar oils are given as loadings (LL/EL50, NOELR).
Short-term aquatic toxicity has been examined
in fish, daphnia and alga (OECD TG 203, 202, and 201, respectively). In
fish tests, semi-static and open test conditions were used. Test
substances were AOH and wash oil. Tests with daphnia were performed
under static conditions using sealed/closed and largely open test
vessels (test substances AOH and AOH / AOL, respectively). Algae were
tested under static conditions in open vessels using the substances AOH
The lowest acute toxicity value was obtained
in the daphnia study with AOH under closed test conditions: LL50(48 h) =
22.4 mg/L (anthracene oil high BaP, AOH, CS 06). Under open conditions,
the corresponding values in daphnia were approximately 6 and 8 times
higher: LL50(48 h) = 167 mg/L (anthracene oil high BaP, AOH, CS 06) and
137 mg/L (anthracene oil low BaP, AOL, CS 07).
These findings indicate that volatility of
constituents in anthracene oils is substantial and that volatile
components contribute to acute intoxication. It may be assumed that
narcosis is the main underlying mechanism for the high intoxication by
the volatile fraction.
All other toxicity data in fish and alga are
significantly above 10 mg/L or 100 mg/L (based on loading):
Fish:LL50(96 h) = >100 mg/L (anthracene oil
high BaP, AOH, CS 06) and 79 mg/L (wash oil, WO, CS 05)
Alga: EL50(72 h) = 48 mg/L (anthracene oil
high BaP, AOH, CS 06) and 25 mg/L (anthracene oil low BaP, AOL, CS 07).
The short-term test results reported here
demonstrate, that anthracene oil high (> 50 ppm) BaP (AOH) as well as
the other tar oils possess only a low toxicity to aquatic organisms.
Data are not sufficiently different to unequivocally decide which
species is the most sensitive. Selection of the leading toxic effect
will be based on results from the long-term aquatic toxicity tests with
(tests with phenanthrene)
Long-term aquatic toxicity is represented by
tests with the marker substance phenanthrene. Toxic effects in
freshwater and marine water organisms were produced within its water
solubility range. Tests in freshwater were conducted with fish (ELS
test, semi-static, OECD TG 210), with aquatic invertebrates (daphnia;
intermittent flow-through, OECD TG 202/211 and semi-static, draft TG
AFNOR), and with algae (static, Norme Francais EN 28692, EU Method C.3).
Toxic effects in the marine compartment were studied using the
polychaete worm Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata.
All results showed the same magnitude
Fish: NOEC(28 d) = 11 µg/L (larval
development) (Hooftman and de Ruiter, 1991)
Daphnia: NOEC(21 d) = 18 µg/L (reproduction)
d) = 13 µg/L (reproduction) (Bisson et al., 2000)
Alga: EC10(72 h) = 26 µg/L (growth) (Bisson
et al., 2000)
Polychaete worm: LC50(96 h) = 51 µg/L
(emerging juvenile - early life stage) (Emery and Dillon, 1996)
wks) = 20 µg/L (growth, fecundity, emerging juvenile production) (Emery
and Dillon, 1996)
The lowest NOEC identified was 11 µg/L (fish,
larval development). NOECs for daphnia fell in the same range (13 and 18
µg/L). Toxicity in the marine compartment was not higher than with
The NOEC with fish (11 µg/L) is selected as
starting point for derivation of PNECs.
Inhibitory effect to micro-organisms
(test with creosote)
A structure-related tar-oil (creosote) caused
no substantial inhibition of a mixed microbial population but at high
nominal concentrations (EL50 = 670 mg/L, OECD TG 209).
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