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EC number: 292-607-4
CAS number: 90640-86-1
Distillate from the fractional distillation of coal tar of bituminous coal, with boiling range of 240°C to 400°C (464°F to 752°F). Composed primarily of tri- and polynuclear hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds.
Due to the complex
composition ofthe substance distillates (coal tar), heavy
oils (anthracene oil >50 ppm BaP, AOH [CAS no. 90640-86-1]),a
single BCF value cannot be determined for the substance. Relevant
components (all PAH) will have their individual BCF values. Main
constituents of AOH are among others phenanthrene and pyrene (see
Chapter 1.2). These substances are considered to represent the
bioaccumulation potential of total AOH as other PAH present in AOH will
exhibit similar characteristics (see below, reference WHO (2003)).
Bioaccumulation properties of these two substances together with other
more general information on the bioaccumulation potential of PAH will
characterise sufficiently the bioconcentration potential of AOH as a
BIOCONCENTRATION in fish focused on selected PAH as marker
In both, the risk assessment report on coal-tar pitch (EU 2008)
and the expertise for CONCAWE (Lampi and Parkerton 2009), the study by
Jonsson et al. (2004) on BCF of PAH received the highest rate of
reliability. Therefore, this work is given highest priority.
In this obviously well-performed bioconcentration study
similar/according to OECD 305 (flow-through conditions), BCF values were
determined using concentrations in fish and water at steady state (BCFSS)
and uptake and depuration rate constants (BCFK). For
phenanthrene, BCFSS were 700 and 1623 respectively (low and
high exposure), while BCFK were 810 and 2229. Corresponding
data for pyrene were 50 and 53 (BCFSS) and 145 and 97 (BCFK).
Calculation of steady state BCFS resulted in lower values
than using rate constants in the BCF calculation.
For phenanthrene, less test substance accumulated in the tissue at
the low exposure level (0.12 µg/L) compared to the high level (1.12
µg/L) due to a lower uptake rate, while the high excretion/depuration
rates were almost the same at either exposure condition. Lower BCF for
pyrene resulted from reduced uptake as apparent from the much lower
uptake rate constants for pyrene compared to phenanthrene while
depuration was somewhat higher as the already high depuration rate
constants of phenanthrene.
Lipid content of the fish used in this experiment was high
(approx. 10%). According to OECD Guideline 305 - Bioaccumulation in
Fish, adopted October 2012, it is recommended to normalise BCF with
regard to lipid content of test organisms for substances with high
lipophilicity (i.e. with log Pow > 3) in order to reduce variability of
test results caused by variable lipid content of test fish. A lipid
content of 5% has been widely used and is considered as standard, as
this represents the average lipid content of fish commonly used in
studies on BCF.
In their expertise, Lampi and Parkerton (2009) re-calculated the
kinetics-based BCF values (BCFK) by accounting for the high
lipid content of the fish (approx. 10 %). Normalised by this way down to
the standard lipid level of 5 % in fish, the adjusted BCFS (BCFKL)
arrived at 417 and 1149 for phenanthrene and at 76 and 59 for pyrene,
respectively. BCFSS normalised this way resulted in BCFSSL
of 381 and 837 for phenanthrene and 26 and 27.3 for pyrene.
Based on this data, overall evidence indicates that AOH has a low
to moderate bioconcentration potential. PAH are absorbed to different
degrees in fish but metabolism and depuration rate is high that
resulting bioconcentration factors are only moderate. However, the
extent of bioconcentration is mainly determined by the metabolic and
excretory capacity of the target organism and can be different for other
organisms with lower metabolic capacity.
Lampi and Parkerton state that - "with the exception of
phenanthrene - reliable fish BCF data indicate that the EPA PAH show
BCFs below 2000" (note: Anthracene had been excluded from their
treatise). They continue: "In the case of phenanthrene, there are two
high quality BCF values, both below 2000 and several values that are
judged to be reliable with restrictions that fall between 2000 to 5000.
Thus, a weight of evidence approach for phenanthrene would suggest it
fulfils the B criterion, if based only on bioconcentration data.
Taking into account the complementary information for assessing
bioaccumulation properties along the food chain, available data clearly
demonstrate that all PAHs investigated, including phenanthrene, exhibit
a low biomagnification potential (WHO 2003; EU 2008; Lampi and Parkerton
Conclusion according to WHO:
"Aquatic organisms that metabolize PAHs to little or no
extent, such as algae, molluscs and the more primitive invertebrates
(protozoans, porifers and cnidaria) accumulate high concentrations of
PAHs, as would be expected from their log Kow values, whereas organisms
that metabolise PAHs to a great extent, such as fish and higher
invertebrates, accumulate little or no PAHs.
The concentration of PAHs in vegetation is generally
considerably lower than that in soil, the bioaccumulation factors
ranging from 0.0001 to 0.33 for BaP and from 0.001 to 0.18 for 17 other
Biomagnification (the increase in concentration of a substance
in animals in successive trophic levels of food chains) of PAHs has not
been observed in aquatic systems and would not be expected to occur,
because most organisms have a high biotransformation potential for PAHs.
Organisms at higher trophic levels in food chains show the highest
potential for biotransformation (WHO 1998)." [from WHO
EU (2008) Coal-Tar Pitch, high temperature - Risk Assessment.
European Union Risk Assessment Report. The Netherlands
Lampi and Parkerton (2009) Bioaccumulation Assessment of PAHs -
Review Paper Prepared for CONCAWE. ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc.
WHO (2003) HEALTH RISKS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM
LONG-RANGE TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION, JOINT WHO/CONVENTION TASK FORCE
ON THE HEALTH ASPECTS OF AIR POLLUTION. WHO Regional Office for Europe,
World Health Organization 2003
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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