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EC number: 292-607-4
CAS number: 90640-86-1
Distillate from the fractional distillation of coal tar of bituminous coal, with boiling range of 240°C to 400°C (464°F to 752°F). Composed primarily of tri- and polynuclear hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds.
Reliable data on the bioconcentration potential of AOH are available for two of its constituents (phenanthrene and pyrene). Normalised to a fish lipid content of 5%, the highest BCF was determined to be ca. 1150. This value is taken to describe the bioaccumulation potential of AOH.
Due to the complex
composition ofthe substance distillates (coal tar), heavy
oils (anthracene oil >50 ppm BaP, AOH [CAS no. 90640-86-1]),a
single BCF value cannot be determined for the substance. Relevant
components (all PAH) will have their individual BCF values. Main
constituents of AOH are among others phenanthrene and pyrene (see
Chapter 1.2). These substances will be used as marker substances for the
bioaccumulation potential of AOH. In combination and together with
additional information, they are considered to characterise AOH as a
whole as other PAH present in AOH will exhibit similar characteristics
(see reference WHO, 2003).
BCF for phenanthrene and pyrene have been determined in a study
similar to OECD TG 305 of high quality using a flow-through system
(Jonsson et al., 2004). Reliability of 1 was assigned to this study
according to EU (2008), Tab. 3.28, and by Lampi and Parkerton (2009).
BCF were determined using steady state conditions and kinetic parameters
(uptake rate constant k1 and depuration rate constant k2)
at two different exposure levels. Original values for phenanthrene were
700 and 1623 (BCFSS) and 810 and 2229 (BCFK). BCF
for pyrene were 50 and 53 (BCFSS) and 145 and 97 (BCFK),
Several facts can be noticed. BCFs of pyrene are much lower than
BCF for phenanthrene although pyrene is the more lipophilic of both
substances based on their log Pow. Reason is that uptake of pyrene is
reduced while excretion is the same or even higher compared to
phenanthrene. For both substances, BCFSS are lower than the
kinetic BCF, and the effect of different exposure concentrations is much
higher for phenanthrene compared to pyrene (but exposure levels of
pyrene are only 1/10 of the exposure level of phenanthrene).
Overall, BCF are low to moderate. The only value being higher than
2000 is the BCFK for phenanthrene at the high exposure
To put this values in perspective it has to be noted that lipid
content of the test species (sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus)
is high (approx. 10%). For highly lipophilic test substances (log Pow >
3) like PAH, BCF can be normalised to a lipid content of 5% in order to
match results between different studies (compare to OECD TG 305, adopted
Oct. 2012). This normalisation has been performed by Lampi and Parkerton
(2009) in their expertise. Resulting BCF values for the high exposure
level for phenanthrene are 837 (BCFSSL) and 1149 (BCFKL)
being now far below the threshold value of 2000.
Based on combined information and evidence, it is estimated that
other PAH present in AOH will behave in a similar way. Therefore, it is
considered that the BCF of phenanthrene will adequately characterise the
bioaccumulation potential of AOH.
The highest BCF value determined for phenanthrene and normalised
to a 5% lipid content in fish (BCFKL= 1149) is used to
characterise the bioaccumulation potential of AOH. Based on this data,
the BCF of AOH is below 2000.
Lampi M and Parkerton T (2009) Bioaccumulation Assessment of PAHs
- Review Paper Prepared for CONCAWE, October 2009
EU (2008) Coal-Tar Pitch, high temperature - Risk Assessment.
European Union Risk Assessment Report, The Netherlands
Jonsson G, Bechmann RK, Bamber SD, Baussant T (2004)
Bioconcentration, biotransformation, and elimination of polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons in sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus)
exposed to contaminated seawater. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 23, 1538-1548
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