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EC number: 292-607-4
CAS number: 90640-86-1
Distillate from the fractional distillation of coal tar of bituminous coal, with boiling range of 240°C to 400°C (464°F to 752°F). Composed primarily of tri- and polynuclear hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds.
The substance distillates
(coal tar), heavy oils (anthracene oil high (> 50 ppm) BaP, AOH)
[CAS no. 90640-86-1] is a UVCB and
consists of a complex and within limits variable combination of
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The substance is obtained by
distillation from coal tar. Up to 95% of the total product distil over
between 300 and 450°C. This distillation interval excludes low molecular
aromatic hydrocarbons (1 and 2-ring aromatics) as well as largely
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons composed of 5 rings and above,
depending on the respective boiling points of the individual aromatic
Phenanthrene, anthracene (3-ring PAH),
fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene (4-ring PAH)
represent approx. 30 % of total AOH, each accounting for 3 to 10 %. The
majority of other components of AOH fall within the molecular size range
of these five substances.
A key component is phenanthrene (7 – 10 %).
Fluoranthene and pyrene are present in similar amounts. The accumulated
percentage of all substances that can analytically be identified is
about 50 - 53 % (average ca. 51%), depending
on individual AOH samples and analytical method used. The remainder of
AOH is not structurally known. Identification was not possible applying
standard analytical methods.
Due to its poor solubility in water,
short-term aquatic toxicity tests, were performed using
water-accommodated fractions. AOH as such or other closely
structure-related tar oils used as surrogates did exhibit only low acute
aquatic toxicity under standard test conditions in fish, daphnia and
algae. But the component phenanthrene was demonstrated to show
considerable long-term toxicity to a broad range of water, sediment, and
terrestrial organisms (see preceding sections).
In analogy to the structure-related substance
anthracene oil (low (< 50 ppm) BaP, AOL) [CAS no. 90640-80-5], the key
component phenanthrene is considered to adequately represent the
PAH-related environmental toxicity of AOH. It is one of the most
abundant components in AOH. Therefore, phenanthrene is selected as
marker substance to represent the environmental toxicity of AOH.
Environmental risk assessment is based on
predicted no effect levels (PNECs) derived for the substance under
consideration. As phenanthrene is established as marker substance for
AOH, PNECs are deduced employing environmental toxicity data of
phenanthrene. Subsequently, the PNECs derived for phenanthrene are
adjusted to AOH taking into account the percentage of phenanthrene
(maximum 10 %) in AOH and all identifiable substances (51 %). In
practice, the PNEC for phenanthrene is lowered to a PNEC for AOH by
multiplication of the phenanthrene-specific PNEC by a factor of 0.2
Basic PNECs are derived according to ECHA
acute toxicity values obtained from the three trophic levels indicate
that anthracene oil may exert weak to moderate acute toxicity to aquatic
life. The consistent findings of EL/LL50 values above 10 mg/L strongly
support classification as harmful to environment
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