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EC number: 208-754-4
CAS number: 540-72-7
They key value from acute oral toxicity is derived from a study with ammonium thiocyanate in Japanese quails (OECD 401, GLP), resulting to LD50 of 508 mg/kg bw which equals to 541 mg/kg bw based on NaSCN.A guideline acute dermal study with sodium thiocyanate is not available. In an acute dermal toxicity study with potassium thiocyanate no mortalities occurred and the LD50 is >2000 mg/kg bw.An acute inhalation study is not available but inhalation is not a likely route of exposure due to the low vapour pressure, hygroscopic properties of the substance and the way of use.
This study was performed to assess the acute
thiocyanate to the Japanese quail when administered as a single oral
dose. The study carried out was based on the OECD Guideline No. 401 and
on the EPA FIFRA Ref. No. 71-1, EPA TSCA Par. 797.2175, EPA OPPTS Par.
850.2100 Guidelines, with the exception that the study was performed
with Japanese quails.
Ammonium thiocyanate was administered by
oral gavage, using water (Milli-U) as a vehicle, to five birds of each
sex at 191, 343, 617, 1111 or 2000 mg/kg body weight. A control group of
five birds of each sex was dosed with vehicle (5 ml/kg). Birds were
observed at periodic intervals on the day of dosing and daily
thereafter; body weight was determined at start of the study (day 1),
day 8 and day 15; food consumption was measured from days 1-4, 4-8, 8-11
and 11-15. Macroscopic post-mortem examination was performed at
termination (day 15).
0 mg/kg: 1) Fluid faeces.
191 mg/kg: 1) Fluid faeces.
343 mg/kg: 1) Fluid faeces, uncoordinated
movements, lethargy, clonic spasms, abnormal posture of the head,
ventro-lateral recumbency, hunched posture, breathing abnormalities or
ptosis were seen among the birds.
2) Reduced food consumption during 4 days
1111 mg/kg 1) All birds died within 5 hours
after dosing, except for one male which was found dead on day 2. 2
)Clinical signs noted were fluid or red faeces, uncoordinated movements,
lethargy, clonic spasms, abnormal posture of the head, tremors of the
head or wing, ventro-lateral recumbency, hunched posture, breathing
abnormalities and ptosis. 3) Examination post-mortem revealed
haemorrhages in the intestines, swollen andlor dark red liver, dark red
spleen and a detached cuticle of the stomach.
1) All birds died within 1 hour post-dosing.
2) Clinical signs noted were fluid faeces,
uncoordinated movements, lethargy, clonit spasms, tremors or abnormal
posture of the head, ventro-lateral recumbency, hunched posture,
breathing abnormalities and ptosis.
3) Examination post-mortem revealed
haemorrhages in the intestines, swollen andlor dark red liver and
detached cuticles of the stomach.
Under the conditions of this study, the oral
LD50 values of ammonium thiocyanate in Japanese quail was established as
508 mg/kg body weight with 95% confidence limits being 349 - 693 mg/kg
and the slope of the dose-response curve 3.11. For the individual sexes
the LD50 values were also established to be 508 mg/kg body weight with
the 95% confidence intervals being 285 - 790 mg/kg and the slope being
2.45. The no observed effect level (NOEL) in this study was 191 mg/kg
Assessment of acute dermal toxicity with
KSCN (POTASSIUM THIOCYANATE) in the rat. The study was carried out based
on the guidelines described in: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):
Health Effects Test Guidelines OPPTS 870.1200. "Acute Dermal Toxicity",
EC Commission Directive 92/69/EEC, Part B.3, "Acute Toxicity-Dermal",
OECD NoA02, "Acute Dermal Toxicity" and JMAFF: Japanese Test
KSCN (POTASSIUM THIOCYANATE) was
administered to five Wistar rats of each sex by dermal application at
2000 mg/kg body weight for 24 hours. Animals were subjected to daily observations
and weekly determination of body weight. Macroscopic examination was performed
after terminal sacrifice (day 15).
No mortality occurred. Chromodacryorrhoea
was noted in all animals. All animals had recovered from the symptoms between
days 2 and 3.
Erythema, necrosis, scales, scabs were seen
in the treated skin-area of the animals during the observation period. The
changes noted in body weight gain in males and females were within the
range expected for rats used in this type of study. No abnormalities
were found at macroscopic post mortem examination of the animals.
The dermal LDso value of KSCN (POTASSIUM
THIOCYANATE) in Wistar rats was established
to exceed 2000 mg/kg body weight.
Oral toxicity: For sodium thiocyanate
a valid acute oral toxicity study is not available. However values from
literature are all within the same range. In one study the LD50 in mice
is 598.4 ± 18.3 mg/kg bw and the LD50 in rats is 764.7 ± 50.9 mg/kg bw.
In a table retrieved from RTECS values for rats are reported from
232-1180 mg/kg bw, for mice 360-809 mg/kg bw and one for domestic animal
of 520 mg/kg bw.
They key value from acute oral
toxicity is derived from a study with ammonium thiocyanate in Japanese
quails (OECD 401, GLP) resulting to a LD50 of 508 mg NH4SCN/kg bw.
Calculated to NaSCN this equals 541 mg NaSCN/kg bw. Although this is not
the standard species the value from this study is supported by values
from literature, 500/720, 750 and 500 mg/kg bw in mouse rat and guinea
Also reported values for potassium
thiocyanate in literature are within the same range. In one study the
LD50 in mice is 594.4 ± 27.0 mg/kg bw and the LD50 in rats is 854.1 ±
66.6 mg/kg bw.
Dermal toxicity: In an acute dermal
toxicity study with potassium thiocyanate no mortalities occurred and
the LD50 was established as >2000 mg/kg bw. This fits with the notion
that dermal absorption of salts that are fully dissociated in aqueous
solution is slow. A similar result can be expected for sodium
Inhalation toxicity:Only available
information is an LC50 > 100 mg/m3 for ammonium thiocyanate listed in
RTECS of unassignable validity, and a level that is not conclusive for
classification. Other information on sodium thiocyanate itself reports a
LD50 of 232 mg/kg bw following intratracheal application.
There are no relevant data from acute
inhalation toxicity studies for adequate classification. However,
inhalation is not a likely route of exposure due to the very low vapour
pressure (< 1.33 x 10-8 Pa; read-across from KSCN), hygroscopic
properties of the substance and the way of use, generally involving
aqueous solutions in which sodium thiocyanate is completely dissociated
and thus will not lead to evaporation of thiocyanate ions.
Information on acute toxicity via
other routes of application includes i.p., s.c. and i.v. in various
species. All results indicate similar level of acute toxicity compared
to oral, with only a generally somewhat lower LD50 level of around 100
mg/kg administration following direct i.v. administration. This
indicates that oral absorption is complete, and that following
absorption by any route the distribution over the extracellular volume
is the same.
Sodium thiocyanates is a hygroscopic
solid that does not contain aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic
hydrocarbons and in aqueous solutions does not decrease surface tension
and therefore does not indicate a concern for aspiration hazard.
on weight of the evidence sodium thiocyanate is classified in GHS
category IV for acute oral toxicity.
an acute dermal toxicity study with potassium thiocyanate no mortalities
occurred and the LD50 is >2000 mg/kg bw and based on this study
thiocyanates do not need classification for acute dermal toxicity.
is no data on inhalation toxicity. In view of limited likelihood of
exposure no classification is indicated.
are hygroscopic solids, do not contain aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic
hydrocarbons and in aqueous solutions do not decrease surface tension
and therefore do not indicate a concern for aspiration hazard.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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