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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Apr 1976 - Feb 1977
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 211 (Daphnia magna Reproduction Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study pre-dates GLPs
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: all concentrations on day 0, and every 3-5 days throughout the 21-day test.
- Sampling method: details not available in study report
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Preserved with 1% formaldehyde, and stored at 5 C until analysis.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Direct dilution of the appropriate amount of test substance into blended well water
- Controls: Blended well water
- Evidence of undissolved material: No
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Water flea
- Strain/clone: N/A
- Source: In-house culture
- Age of parental stock: <12 h
- Feeding during test: yes
- Food type: ground trout chow/alfalfa mixture, 1000 mg/L
- Amount: 5 mg/L
- Frequency: Each diluter cycle

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Not specified
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): N/A
- Type and amount of food: N/A
- Feeding frequency: N/A
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): N/A

METHOD FOR PREPARATION AND COLLECTION OF EARLY INSTARS OR OTHER LIFE STAGES: Young were manually siphoned from existing culture units.
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Hardness:
120 +/- 18 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
21 +/- 1 C
pH:
7.5 +/- 0.2
Dissolved oxygen:
8.9 +/- 0.4 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal test concentrations are not specified in the study report. Mean measured concentrations were 0, 0.13, 0.27, 0.47, 0.93, and 1.94 mg a.i./L.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material: 1 liter glass beakers, 1 L test solution
- Aeration: N/A (test was flow-thru)
- Type of flow-through: Mount and Brungs proportional diluter, with modifications
- Renewal rate of test solution: 125 ml per 20 min cycle, or one chamber volume every 2.5 hr.
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4
- Biomass loading rate: 5 daphnids/L

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Blended well water (a mixture of well water and deionized water)
- Total organic carbon: N/A
- Particulate matter: N/A
- Metals: N/A
- Pesticides: N/A
- Chlorine: N/A
- Alkalinity: N/A
- Ca/mg ratio: N/A
- Conductivity: N/A
- Salinity: N/A
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Daily

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: N/A
- Photoperiod: N/A
- Light intensity: N/A

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality, 24 hr, 96 hr, 7 days, then daily to end of test. Reproduction, daily beginning day 7 or 8 to end of test.

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: no
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.27 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
other: Parent (Fo) Survival and Reproduction (Mean Brood Size; Total # of young)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.37 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
other: Total young production
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 0.22-0.54 mg/L
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
other: Average brood size
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 0.23-0.60 mg/L
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.52 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
other: Percentage of days reproduction occurred
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 0.31-0.76 mg/L
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.74 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 0.56-0.94 mg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1.17 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 0.82-1.66 mg/L
Details on results:
- Mortality of parent animals: Controls, 10%
- No. of offspring produced per day per female: N/A
- Body length and weight of parent animals: N/A
- Type and number of morphological abnormalities: N/A
- Type and number of behavioural abnormalities: N/A
- Number of males and females (parental): N/A
- Time to first brood release or time to hatch: 7 or 8 days
- Brood size: Controls, 8.05 (mean).
- Time to sexual maturity: N/A
- Type and magnitude of biochemical changes: N/A
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: no
Reported statistics and error estimates:
All results were calculated with a computerized probit analysis program after Finney (1964, 1971). Survival data for 96 hr and 21 days was used to calculate LC50 and EC50 values and confidence limits. All results were calculated based on mean measured concentrations of test material.

Chronic Toxicity of Alkyl Ethoxy Sulfate (AES)* to Daphnia magna (study # 20710)

Test Concentration (mg/L)

Mortality (%)

Total Young Produced

Mean Brood Size

% of Days that Reproduction Occurred

0

10

783

8.0

92

0.13

45

No data **

No data **

No data **

0.27

35

529

6.2

100

0.47

30

334

3.5

75

0.93

50

0

0

0

1.94

100

0

0

0

* C14-16EO2.25S.

Results are cumulative at 21 days.

Test concentration is mean measured concentration.

Statistical significance not specified in study report.

** Malfunction in feeding system caused no feed to be delivered to this test concentration.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 21 day NOEC of C14-16EO2.25S (alkylethoxysulfate, AES) to Daphnia magna was 0.27 mg/L, based on measured concentrations. The NOEC was based on reproduction. 
Executive summary:

A 21 day chronic toxicity test of C14 -16EO2.25S (alkylethoxysulfate, AES) was conducted using Daphnia magna in a flow-through test. Mean measured test concentrations were 0, 0.13, 0.27, 0.47, 0.93, and 1.94 mg a.i./L. Four replicates per concentration, 5 organisms per replicate, were tested, using a modified Mount and Brungs proportional diluter. Survival was monitored at 24 hr., 96 hr., 7 days, and daily thereafter. Reproduction was monitored beginning with the production of the first brood on day 7 or 8, and daily thereafter.

The 21 -day NOEC, 0.27 mg/L, was based on both survival and reproduction.

EC50's for reproduction, and an LC50 for mortality, were also calculated and are available in the study report.

Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
20 - 27 Apr 1995
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: analytical, no TSCR
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
other: EPA-600/489/001: Short term methods for measuring the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater organisms
Deviations:
not specified
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 211 (Daphnia magna Reproduction Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
Not applicable
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Samples were taken from all exposure concentrations in each stream channel on study days 1, 4 and 7
- Sampling method: 50 mL of sample water was removed from each of the replicate stream channels and combined to yield a 100 mL sample for each test concentration. Each sample was treated to three successive MBAS extractions using HPLC grade chloroform. Extracted material was combined and brought to 50 mL with fresh chloroform.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Not available
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Test material stock solutions were prepared by diluting surfactants in distilled water. Stock mixtures of the test substance were made up in 4-L batches and placed on magnetic stirrers.
- Controls: dilution water without test substance
- Evidence of undissolved material: none
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia dubia
- Strain/clone: Not available
- Justification for species other than prescribed by test guideline: Not applicable
- Source: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University In-house breeding culture
- Age of parental stock : Not available
- Feeding during test
- Food type: trialgal diet containing equal portions of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlamydomonas vulgaris and Ankistrodesmus falcatus
- Amount: not specified in study report
- Frequency: daily at each renewal

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Not available
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): Not available
- Type and amount of food: trialgal diet containing equal portions of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlamydomonas vulgaris and Ankistrodesmus falcatus
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
7 d
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
range of 75 - 120 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
range of 24.8 - 25.5 C
pH:
range of 7.06 - 7.88
Dissolved oxygen:
range of 6.3 - 7.0 mg/L
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: Not available.
Measured concentrations: 0, 0.34, 1.10, 2.26, 4.64, 16.56 mg/L.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material: Test chamber is a 35 mL disposable polystyrene cup fitted with 120-µM Nitex mesh on opposite sides
- Aeration: none (test was flow-through)
- Type of flow-through: peristaltic
- Renewal rate of test solution: 360mL/hr
- No. of organisms per vessel: 1
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 10
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 10
- Biomass loading rate: 1 daphnid/35 ml

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Reconstituted water as described by Lauth et al (1990)
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: range of 50 - 90 mg/L as CaCO3
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 389 - 511 µmhos
- Salinity: Not available
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Days 1, 4 and 7 for each exposure concentration

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not available
- Photoperiod: 16 hr light / 8 hr dark
- Light intensity: approximately 400 foot candles

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality and number of young were assessed daily

RANGE-FINDING STUDY
- A 48 hr acute toxicity test was conducted prior to the chronic test. Results from the acute test were used to determine test concentrations for the chronic study. The 48 hr acute toxicity test is summarized in section 6.1.3.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
4.64 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 0.34 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
other: IC20
Effect conc.:
1.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
not specified
Remarks on result:
other: 0.58 - 1.69
Details on results:
C
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
One-way analysis of variance with Dunnett's test was used to determine the NOEC effect concentrations, based on reproductive responses. The IC20 was determined using the ICp (USEPA, Norberg-King, 1988) and Bruce and Versteeg methods.

Chronic Toxicity of C12EO1S to Ceriodaphnia dubia (study 66096)

 Neonates/Female
Actual Concentration (mg/L) % Mortality Mean S.D.
0 0 23.1 2
0.34 10 20.8 * 2.8
1.1 0 18.5 * 4.4
2.26 0 15.5 * 5.4
4.64 0 11.4 * 4.7
16.56 100 * 0 * 0

* Significantly different from control (0.05 level).

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
80% or greater survival in controls, 15 or more young per surviving female
Conclusions:
The 7-day NOEC of C12EO1S (alkylethoxysulfate, AES) to Ceriodaphnia dubia was <0.34 mg/L, based on reproduction (measured concentrations).
Executive summary:

In a 7 -day chronic toxicity study, Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed to C12EO1S (alkylethoxysulfate, AES) at measured concentrations of 0, 0.34, 1.10, 2.26, 4.64 and 16.56 mg/L under flow-through conditions. The 7 -day NOEC based on mortality and reproduction was 4.64 and <0.34 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the validity criteria as stated in the study protocol.

Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
26 May - 04 Jun 1994
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: analytical
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
other: EPA-600/489/001: Short term methods for measuring the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater organisms
Deviations:
not specified
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 211 (Daphnia magna Reproduction Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Samples were taken from all exposure concentrations in each stream channel on study days 1, 4 and 7
- Sampling method: 50 mL of sample water was removed from each of the replicate stream channels and combined to yield a 100 mL sample for each test concentration. Each sample was treated to three successive MBAS extractions using HPLC grade chloroform. Extracted material was combined and brought to 50 mL with fresh chloroform.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Not available
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Test material stock solutions were prepared by diluting surfactants in distilled water. Stock mixtures of the test substance were made up in 4-L batches and placed on magnetic stirrers.
- Controls: dilution water without test substance
- Evidence of undissolved material: none
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia dubia
- Strain/clone: Not available
- Justification for species other than prescribed by test guideline: Not applicable
- Source: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University In-house breeding culture
- Age of parental stock : Not available
- Feeding during test
- Food type: trialgal diet containing equal portions of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlamydomonas vulgaris and Ankistrodesmus falcatus
- Amount: not specified in study report
- Frequency: daily at each renewal

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Not available
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): Not available
- Type and amount of food: trialgal diet containing equal portions of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlamydomonas vulgaris and Ankistrodesmus falcatus
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
7 d
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
range of 60 - 120 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
range of 24.6 - 25.2 C
pH:
range of 7.10 - 8.01
Dissolved oxygen:
range of 6.2 - 7.9 mg/L
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: Not available
Measured concentrations: 0, 0.11, 0.31, 0.70, 1.83, 4.88 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material: Test chamber is a 35 mL disposable polystyrene cup fitted with 120-µM Nitex mesh on opposite sides
- Aeration: none (test was flow-through)
- Type of flow-through: peristaltic
- Renewal rate of test solution: 360mL/hr
- No. of organisms per vessel: 1
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 10
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 10
- Biomass loading rate: 1 daphnid/35 ml

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Reconstituted water as described by Lauth et al (1990)
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: range of 50 - 90 mg/L as CaCO3
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 389 - 511 µmhos
- Salinity: Not available
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Days 1, 4 and 7 for each exposure concentration

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not available
- Photoperiod: 16 hr light / 8 hr dark
- Light intensity: approximately 400 foot candles

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality and number of young were assessed daily

RANGE-FINDING STUDY
- A 48 hr acute toxicity test was conducted prior to the chronic test. Results from the acute test were used to determine test concentrations for the chronic study. The 48 hr acute toxicity test is summarized in section 6.1.3.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1.83 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.31 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
other: IC20
Effect conc.:
0.45 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
not specified
Remarks on result:
other: 0.38 - 0.50
Details on results:
- Mortality of parent animals: See remarks on Results
- No. of offspring produced per day per female: See remarks on Results
- Body length and weight of parent animals: Not available
- Type and number of morphological abnormalities: Not available
- Type and number of behavioural abnormalities: Not available
- Number of males and females (parental): Not available
- Time to first brood release or time to hatch: Not available
- Egg development time: Not available
- Brood size: Not available
- Time to sexual maturity: Not available
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
One-way analysis of variance with Dunnett's test was used to determine the NOEC effect concentrations, based on reproductive responses. The IC20 was determined using the ICp (USEPA, Norberg-King, 1988) and Bruce and Versteeg methods.

Chronic Toxicity of C14EO2S to Ceriodaphnia dubia (study 66096)

 Neonates/Female
Actual Concentration (mg/L) % Mortality Mean S.D.
0 10 25.3 2.6
0.11 10 26.6 3.3
0.31 10 26.2 3.8
0.70 0 13.3 * 2.1
1.83 0 6.7 * 4.2
4.88 100 * 0 * 0

* Significantly different from control (0.05 level).

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
80% or greater survival in controls, 15 or more young per surviving female
Conclusions:
The 7-day NOEC of C14EO2S (alkylethoxysulfate, AES) to Ceriodaphnia dubia was 0.31 mg/L, based on reproduction (measured concentrations).
Executive summary:

In a 7 -day chronic toxicity study, Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed to C14EO2S (alkylethoxysulfate, AES) at measured concentrations of 0, 0.11, 0.31, 0.70, 1.83 and 4.88 mg/L under flow-through conditions. The 7 -day NOEC based on mortality and reproduction was 1.83 and 0.31 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the validity criteria as stated in the study protocol.

Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
8 - 14 Aug 1994
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: analytical
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
other: EPA-600/489/001: Short term methods for measuring the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater organisms
Deviations:
not specified
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 211 (Daphnia magna Reproduction Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
Not applicable
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Samples were taken from all exposure concentrations in each stream channel on study days 1, 4 and 7
- Sampling method: 50 mL of sample water was removed from each of the replicate stream channels and combined to yield a 100 mL sample for each test concentration. Each sample was treated to three successive MBAS extractions using HPLC grade chloroform. Extracted material was combined and brought to 50 mL with fresh chloroform.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Not available
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Test material stock solutions were prepared by diluting surfactants in distilled water. Stock mixtures of the test substance were made up in 4-L batches and placed on magnetic stirrers.
- Controls: dilution water without test substance
- Evidence of undissolved material: none
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia dubia
- Strain/clone: Not available
- Justification for species other than prescribed by test guideline: Not applicable
- Source: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University In-house breeding culture
- Age of parental stock : Not available
- Feeding during test
- Food type: trialgal diet containing equal portions of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlamydomonas vulgaris and Ankistrodesmus falcatus
- Amount: not specified in study report
- Frequency: daily at each renewal

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Not available
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): Not available
- Type and amount of food: trialgal diet containing equal portions of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlamydomonas vulgaris and Ankistrodesmus falcatus
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
7 d
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
range of 75 - 120 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
range of 24.7 - 25.3 C
pH:
range of 7.30 - 7.99
Dissolved oxygen:
range of 6.9 - 7.3 mg/L
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: Not available
Measured concentrations: 0, 0.95, 6.25, 18.50, 24.90, 34.22 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material: Test chamber is a 35 mL disposable polystyrene cup fitted with 120-µM Nitex mesh on opposite sides
- Aeration: none (test was flow-through)
- Type of flow-through: peristaltic
- Renewal rate of test solution: 360mL/hr
- No. of organisms per vessel: 1
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 10
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 10
- Biomass loading rate: 1 daphnid/35 ml

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Reconstituted water as described by Lauth et al (1990)
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: range of 50 - 90 mg/L as CaCO3
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 389 - 511 µmhos
- Salinity: Not available
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Days 1, 4 and 7 for each exposure concentration

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not available
- Photoperiod: 16 hr light / 8 hr dark
- Light intensity: approximately 400 foot candles

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality and number of young were assessed daily

RANGE-FINDING STUDY
- A 48 hr acute toxicity test was conducted prior to the chronic test. Results from the acute test were used to determine test concentrations for the chronic study. The 48 hr acute toxicity test is summarized in section 6.1.3.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
18.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
6.25 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
other: IC20
Effect conc.:
7.85 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
not specified
Remarks on result:
other: 4.12 - 14.80
Details on results:
- Mortality of parent animals: See remarks on Results
- No. of offspring produced per day per female: See remarks on Results
- Body length and weight of parent animals: Not available
- Type and number of morphological abnormalities: Not available
- Type and number of behavioural abnormalities: Not available
- Number of males and females (parental): Not available
- Time to first brood release or time to hatch: Not available
- Egg development time: Not available
- Brood size: Not available
- Time to sexual maturity: Not available
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
One-way analysis of variance with Dunnett's test was used to determine the NOEC effect concentrations, based on reproductive responses. The IC20 was determined using the ICp (USEPA, Norberg-King, 1988) and Bruce and Versteeg methods.

Chronic Toxicity of C12EO2S to Ceriodaphnia dubia (study 66096)

 Neonates/Female
Actual Concentration (mg/L) % Mortality Mean S.D.
0 0 23.2 4.8
0.95 0 25.9 5.5
6.25 0 25.1 7.4
18.50 10 10.9 * 5.3
24.90 40 0.6 * 0.8
34.22 100 * 0 * 0

* Significantly different from control (0.05 level).

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
80% or greater survival in controls, 15 or more young per surviving female
Conclusions:
The 7-day NOEC of C12EO2S (alkylethoxysulfate, AES) to Ceriodaphnia dubia was 6.25 mg/L, based on reproduction (measured concentrations).
Executive summary:

In a 7 -day chronic toxicity study, Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed to C12EO2S (alkylethoxysulfate, AES) at measured concentrations of 0, 0.95, 6.25, 18.50, 24.90 and 34.22 mg/L under flow-through conditions. The 7 -day NOEC based on mortality and reproduction was 18.50 and 6.25 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the validity criteria as stated in the study protocol.

Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
25 - 31 May 1995
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: analytical, no TSCR
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
other: EPA-600/489/001: Short term methods for measuring the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater organisms
Deviations:
not specified
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 211 (Daphnia magna Reproduction Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
Not applicable
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Samples were taken from all exposure concentrations in each stream channel on study days 1, 4 and 7
- Sampling method: 50 mL of sample water was removed from each of the replicate stream channels and combined to yield a 100 mL sample for each test concentration. Each sample was treated to three successive MBAS extractions using HPLC grade chloroform. Extracted material was combined and brought to 50 mL with fresh chloroform.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Not available
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Test material stock solutions were prepared by diluting surfactants in distilled water. Stock mixtures of the test substance were made up in 4-L batches and placed on magnetic stirrers.
- Controls: dilution water without test substance
- Evidence of undissolved material: none
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia dubia
- Strain/clone: Not available
- Justification for species other than prescribed by test guideline: Not applicable
- Source: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University In-house breeding culture
- Age of parental stock : Not available
- Feeding during test
- Food type: trialgal diet containing equal portions of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlamydomonas vulgaris and Ankistrodesmus falcatus
- Amount: not specified in study report
- Frequency: daily at each renewal

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Not available
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): Not available
- Type and amount of food: trialgal diet containing equal portions of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlamydomonas vulgaris and Ankistrodesmus falcatus
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
7 d
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
range of 90 - 120 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
range of 25.4 - 26.1 C
pH:
range of 7.38 - 7.89
Dissolved oxygen:
range of 6.3 - 7.1 mg/L
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: Not available
Measured concentrations: 0, 0.04, 0.34, 0.81, 1.33, 4.51 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material: Test chamber is a 35 mL disposable polystyrene cup fitted with 120-µM Nitex mesh on opposite sides
- Aeration: none (test was flow-through)
- Type of flow-through: peristaltic
- Renewal rate of test solution: 360mL/hr
- No. of organisms per vessel: 1
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 10
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 10
- Biomass loading rate: 1 daphnid/35 ml

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Reconstituted water as described by Lauth et al (1990)
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: range of 50 - 90 mg/L as CaCO3
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 389 - 511 µmhos
- Salinity: Not available
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Days 1, 4 and 7 for each exposure concentration

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not available
- Photoperiod: 16 hr light / 8 hr dark
- Light intensity: approximately 400 foot candles

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality and number of young were assessed daily

RANGE-FINDING STUDY
- A 48 hr acute toxicity test was conducted prior to the chronic test. Results from the acute test were used to determine test concentrations for the chronic study. The 48 hr acute toxicity test is summarized in section 6.1.3.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
4.51 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.81 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
other: IC20
Effect conc.:
1.08 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
not specified
Remarks on result:
other: 0.93 - 1.48
Details on results:
- Mortality of parent animals: See remarks on Results
- No. of offspring produced per day per female: See remarks on Results
- Body length and weight of parent animals: Not available
- Type and number of morphological abnormalities: Not available
- Type and number of behavioural abnormalities: Not available
- Number of males and females (parental): Not available
- Time to first brood release or time to hatch: Not available
- Egg development time: Not available
- Brood size: Not available
- Time to sexual maturity: Not available
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
One-way analysis of variance with Dunnett's test was used to determine the NOEC effect concentrations, based on reproductive responses. The IC20 was determined using the ICp (USEPA, Norberg-King, 1988) and Bruce and Versteeg methods.

Chronic Toxicity of C14EO1S to Ceriodaphnia dubia (study 66096)

 Neonates/Female
Actual Concentration (mg/L) % Mortality Mean S.D.
0 0 22.6 2.2
0.04 0 23.2 1.8
0.34 0 21.2 2.2
0.81 0 20.4 1.2
1.33 0 16.4 * 3.9
4.51 20 8.3 * 5.7

* Significantly different from control (0.05 level).

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
80% or greater survival in controls, 15 or more young per surviving female
Conclusions:
The 7-day NOEC of C14EO1S (alkylethoxysulfate, AES) to Ceriodaphnia dubia was 0.81 mg/L, based on reproduction (measured concentrations).
Executive summary:

In a 7 -day chronic toxicity study, Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed to C14EO1S (alkylethoxysulfate, AES) at measured concentrations of 0, 0.04, 0.34, 0.81, 1.33 and 4.51 mg/L under flow-through conditions. The 7 -day NOEC based on mortality and reproduction was 4.51 and 0.81 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the validity criteria as stated in the study protocol.

Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
Please refer to the Category Approach Justification provided in Section 13
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.27 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
other: Parent (Fo) Survival and Reproduction (Mean Brood Size; Total # of young)
Remarks on result:
other:
Remarks:
Source, key, 68585-34-2, 1977a
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.37 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
other: Total young production
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 0.22-0.54 mg/L
Remarks:
Source, key, 68585-34-2, 1977a
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
other: Average brood size
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 0.23-0.60 mg/L
Remarks:
Source, key, 68585-34-2, 1977a
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.52 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
other: Percentage of days reproduction occurred
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 0.31-0.76 mg/L
Remarks:
Source, key, 68585-34-2, 1977a
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.74 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 0.56-0.94 mg/L
Remarks:
Source, key, 68585-34-2, 1977a
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1.17 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 0.82-1.66 mg/L
Remarks:
Source, key, 68585-34-2, 1977a

Description of key information

NOEC (21 d) for Daphnia manga = 0.27 mg a.i./L (measured) related to reproduction (OECD 211)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10, LC10 or NOEC for freshwater invertebrates:
0.27 mg/L

Additional information

Data on long-term toxic effects to aquatic invertebrates are not required for the registered tonnage band. However, read across studies from a comparable AES (C12-14, 2.5EO) Na salt and some pure AES homologues (C12, 1EO; C12, 2EO; C14, 1EO and C14, 2EO) Na are available.

Effects of AES (C12-14, 2.5EO) sodium salt mixture were examined in a non-GLP study according to OECD guideline 211 (P&G, 1977a). Under flow-through conditions a NOEC (21 d) of 0.27 mg a.i./L (measured) for Daphnia magna was observed. The NOEC value was based on reproduction.

Following the procedures of the EPA-guideline 600/489/00 (which is equivalent or similar to OECD 211), individuals of Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed under flow-through conditions in separate test systems to pure AES homologue Na salts with different chain-lengths (C12 and C14) and EO concentrations (EO1 and EO2). Based on reproduction the resulting 7-day-NOECs ranged from 0.31 mg a.i./L (measured) for C14, 2EO to 6.25 mg a.i./L (measured) for C12, 2EO (P&G, 1996).