Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Hazard for aquatic organisms

Freshwater

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC aqua (freshwater)
PNEC value:
0.008 mg/L
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor
PNEC freshwater (intermittent releases):
0.02 mg/L

Marine water

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC aqua (marine water)
PNEC value:
0.8 µg/L
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

STP

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC STP
PNEC value:
1.4 mg/L
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

Sediment (freshwater)

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC sediment (freshwater)
PNEC value:
7.5 mg/kg sediment dw
Extrapolation method:
equilibrium partitioning method

Sediment (marine water)

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC sediment (marine water)
PNEC value:
0.75 mg/kg sediment dw
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

Hazard for air

Air

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Hazard for terrestrial organisms

Soil

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC soil
PNEC value:
0.032 mg/kg soil dw
Assessment factor:
50
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

Hazard for predators

Secondary poisoning

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no potential for bioaccumulation

Additional information

Aquatic compartment:

In contact with water, vanadium is expected to exist primarily in the tetravalent and pentavalent forms. Both species are known to bind strongly to mineral or biogenic surfaces by adsorption or complexing. The chemical formulas of the vanadyl species most commonly reported in water are VO(2+) and VO(OH)(1+), and the vanadate species are H2VO4(1-) and HVO4(2-). 

The different reliable studies reported in this dossier are then expressed in terms of vanadium element.

Short term studies carried out on freshwater invertebrates, fish or algae, lead to a similar range of toxicity. The IC50 was between 1.8 and 3.5 mg V/L for Daphnia magna, between 3,17 et 27,8 mg V/L within 96h for fish species and the EC50 for growth rate at 9.5 mg V/L for algae.

The lowest relevant long term study is then chosen for derivation of PNEC.

This data came from Holdway D.A. and Sprague J.B., 1979, with the study on Jordanella floridae, performed on two generations of fish.

The NOEC determined for mortality in the first generation was reported to be 0.17 mg/L. In the second generation, a "safe" concentration was found to be 0.041 mg/L (only weight gain for females, benefit compared to the controls) and a LOEC could be 0.17 mg/L for the dry weight of this second generation and a mortality of 11%. To be very conservative and keep the worst case, it is decided to not base the PNEC on the highest 0.17 mg/L NOEC value defined for first generation, but to use the conclusion of the Authors with the effects on second generation at 0,08 mg V/L (as geometric average of 0.17 and 0.041 mg/L).

An assessment factor of 10 is then applied to this value to calculate the PNEC for freshwater species.

 

Microorganisms/ sewage treatment plant:

An activated sludge respiration inhibition test has been carried out with V2O5 and showed an EC10 (3 hours) of 14 mg V/L. This test followed the OECD 209 guideline and was performed under GLP; it was stated as reliable.

An assessment factor of 10 is then applied to this value to derive the PNEC for STP.

 

Terrestrial compartment:

 

The vanadate ion is the most common form retrieved in environmental compartments and its partition coefficients have been deeply studied. The conclusions are given in the adsorption section (high Kp) and showed a very strong affinity for vanadium to particulate matter, and then a low mobility in soils. That is why the toxicity to terrestrial organisms was carefully reviewed and it was concluded that sufficient reliable data for toxicity to terrestrial macroorganisms, microorganisms and plants were available. They showed that microorganisms are the most sensible species.

The equilibrium partitioning method was used to derive the PNEC for soil. It gives a PNEC= 1.60 mg V/ kg dry soil (PNEC soil = (Ksoil-water/RHOsoil)*PNECwater*1000, with KoC= 9333, vapour pressure negligible, MW= 51, water solubility= 5 mg/L and log Kp= 2.3 for solid-water in soil).

The assessment factor method has also been performed, with an assessment factor of 50 (NOEC available for two trophic level) applied to the lowest long term value: EC10, 9 days=1,6 mg/kg for respiration inhibition of microorganisms. It gives a PNEC = 0,032 mg V/ kg dry soil, 20 times lower than the calculated PNEC soil.

The PNEC should be the lowest value and the 0,032 mg V/ kg dry soil value derived by assessment method is then considered.

Sediment organisms:

There is no data for sediment species, but even if not required due to tonnage band, PNEC for sediment can be extrapolated by EPM method:

PNEC sed= (Ksusp-water/RHOsusp)*PNECwater*1000

By default, RHO susp is set as 1150, Koc, as not relevant was replaced by Kp solid- water in sediment = 9333 (log Kp= 3.97) and PNEC water is 0.008 mg/L.

 

Air compartment:

VCl4 is not concerned with global warning potential nor ozone depletion/ formation, since it is non-volatile substances, containing no carbon nor fluoride molecule. The HCl formation from VCl4 dissociation is neutralized in a special tower to minimize air release. Moreover, there are no methods available for the determination of effects of chemicals on species arising from atmospheric contamination.

For all these reasons, no PNEC have been derived for air compartment.

Secondary poisoning:

 

In a reliable study, Cyprinus carpio were exposed to V2O5 in freshwater under continuous flow through at concentrations of 5 or 50 µg/L during 28 days. The study followed the OECD 305 guideline with no deviation and was then judged acceptable to show that V2O5 did not bioaccumulate in fish species. The BCF found with a concentration of 50 µg V2O5/ L in the environment was 13.

This BCF shows that vanadium has no potential for bioaccumulation, that is why no PNEC is derived.

Conclusion on classification

As showed in the environment fate and pathways, VCl4 rapidly decomposes in the tetravalent and pentavalent forms of vanadium and hydrogen chloride (n°CAS 7647-01-0) when in contact with humidity. These two “by products” have then to be taken into account for classification for the environment. Hydrogen Chloride regulatory classification does not concern the environment (only pH effects are demonstrated), that is why only vanadium element is considered for aquatic hazard. 

For acute toxicity, data on invertebrates, fish and algae showed EC50 between 1,8 and 27,8 mg V/L. No classification is then required for acute toxicity.

The long-term toxicity studies showed a lowest sub- lethal toxicity value of 0,08 mg V/L. (Holdway and Sprague, 1979, with Jordanella floridae). On the basis of the guidance on the application of the CLP criteria (version 5.0, July 2017), the rules indicate in the annex IV (metals and inorganic metal compounds) were applied.

Because of the rapid environmental transformation and the readily soluble of VCl4 in water, the chapter IV.5.3.2.1 indicate that:

Chronic ERV compound = Chronic ERV metal compound x MMcompound/MMmetal compound

Chronic ERV compound = 0.08 x190/50 = 0.3 mg/L

Considering this “Chronic ERV compound”, the VCl4 classification is aquatic chronic category 3, H412.