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Guidance on Safe Use

Guidance on Safe Use

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First-aid measures

General : Speed is essential.
Give first aid and obtain medical attention immediately.
First aiders should be protected adequately (see section “Handling and storage”).
Remove affected person from further exposure.
Ensure that eyewash facility and safety showers are provided close to the work place.
Inhalation : Move the injured person to fresh air at once.
Keep the patient warm and at rest in a half upright position.
Apply artificial respiration, if breathing has stopped or shows sign of failing. Mouth to mouth resuscitation may be dangerous.
Administer oxygen if competent person is available.
Ingestion : Do not induce vomiting.
If the person is conscious, wash out mouth with water and give water to drink.
Skin contact : Drench with water, remove contaminated clothing and wash or shower the affected skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes.
Eye contact : Inmediately irrigate the eyes with eyewash solution or clean water for at least 15 minutes.
Hold eyelids open during flushing. Do not allow victim to rub eyes.
Note to physician : Following exposure to acid/NOx fumes the patient should be kept under medical review for at least 48 hours as delayed pulmonary Œdema may develop.

Fire-fighting measures

Suitable extinguishing media : Nitric acid is not combustible but if involved in a fire use the best means available to extinguish the fire (e.g water, or CO2).
Extinguishing media not to be used : Do not use chemical extinguishers or foams or attempt to smother the fire with steam or sand.
Specific hazards : Nitric acid is not combustible, but has oxidizing properties and therefore may react with many combustible materials causing fires and releasing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides).
May explode on contact with a powerful reducing agent.
Reacts with most common metals to liberate hydrogen which can form explosive mixtures with air
Hazardous thermal decomposition and combustion products : Nitrogen oxides
Special fire fighting procedures : Use water sprays to cool fire-exposed containers and structures, to disperse vapours and to protect personnel
Avoid disposal of contaminated fire fighting water to the environment
Special protective equipment for fire-fighters : Wear self-contained breathing apparatus and full acid- resistant protective clothing.

Accidental release measures

Personal precautions: Those dealing with major releases should wear full protective clothing including respiratory protection.
Avoid skin and eye contact and inhalation vapours.
Evacuate unnecessary personnel.
Environmental precautions : Contain spillage where possible and safe to do so.Take care to avoid the contamination of watercourses
Inform appropriate authority in case of accidental contamination of watercourses or drains.
Dilute with water and neutralise the acid with, for example soda or sodium carbonate, before discharging contaminated material into treatment plants or water courses.
Methods for cleaning up : For small spillage dilute with water and neutralise cautiously with soda ash and/or lime and recover for disposal.
Contain/absorb large spillage with sand or earth as necessary. Do not use organic compounds, sawdust etc. Use a tool to scoop up solid or absorbed material and place into an appropriately labelled wate container.
Pump large amounts of the spilled liquid into containers suitably labelled for disposal.
Remarks : Isolate source of leak as quickly as possible.
Ventilate area of spill or leak to disperse vapors if necessary.

Handling and storage

Handling : Avoid skin and eye contact and inhalation of vapours.
Provide adequate ventilation.
Wear eye and hand protection when handling small quantities.
Wear full protective equipment where there is a risk of leaks or splashes.
When diluting, add acid to water and not water to acid.
Storage : Store in cool, well ventilated area; away from heat, ignition source and direct sunlight.
Do not permit smoking in the storage area.
Keep away from incompatible substances. (See Section Stability and reactivity).
Protect containers from corrosion and physical damage.
Follow appropriate Industry or National codes for bulk and container storage.
Packaging materials : Containers should of stainless steel and preferably of low carbon, content such as 304L or plastic (e.g. PVC).

Transport information

Land transport (UN RTDG/ADR/RID)

UN number:
2031-NITRIC ACID (other than red fuming, with nitric acid>70%)
2031-NITRIC ACID (other than red fuming, with nitric acid 65-70%)
2031-NITRIC ACID (other than red fuming, with nitric acid <65%)
Shippingopen allclose all
Labels:
8 + 5.1 (nitric acid>65%)
8 (nitric acid <65%)
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Inland waterway transport (UN RTDG/ADN(R))

UN number:
2031-NITRIC ACID (other than red fuming, with nitric acid>70%)
2031-NITRIC ACID (other than red fuming, with nitric acid 65-70%)
2031-NITRIC ACID (other than red fuming, with nitric acid <65%)
Shippingopen allclose all
Labels:
8 + 5.1 (nitric acid>65%)
8 (nitric acid <65%)
Remarksopen allclose all

Marine transport (UN RTDG/IMDG)

UN number:
2031
Shipping information
Proper shipping name and description:
2031-NITRIC ACID (other than red fuming, with nitric acid>70%)
2031-NITRIC ACID (other than red fuming, with nitric acid 65-70%)
2031-NITRIC ACID (other than red fuming, with nitric acid <65%)
Chemical name:
Nitric acid
Labels:
8 + 5.1 (nitric acid>65%)
8 (nitric acid <65%)
Remarksopen allclose all

Air transport (UN RTDG/ICAO/IATA)

UN number:
2031
Shipping information
Proper shipping name and description:
2031-NITRIC ACID (other than red fuming, with nitric acid>70%)
2031-NITRIC ACID (other than red fuming, with nitric acid 65-70%)
2031-NITRIC ACID (other than red fuming, with nitric acid <65%)
Chemical name:
Nitric acid
Labels:
8 + 5.1 (nitric acid>65%)
8 (nitric acid <65%)
Remarksopen allclose all
SpecialProvisionsopen allclose all

Exposure controls / personal protection

Exposure limit values :
The following values apply to nitric acid (HNO3) vapours
EU OEL 2000/39/EC
Recommended values;
STEL 2.6 mg/m3 (1ppm) (2006/15/EC)
Engineering measures : Local exhaust ventilation where appropriate.
Provide safety showers and eye washing facility at any location where skin or eye contact can occur.
Hygienic measures : When handling the product do not eat, drink or smoke. Wash hands after handling and before eating, smoking and using the lavatory and at the end of the working period.
Personal protection : there 2 cases depending nitric acid concentration

Nitric acid >75% :
Respiratory protection: respiratory protection is required for normal handling with highly concentrated nitric acid (except for closed systems). Generally masks with an Assigned Protection Factor (APF) = 20 as given in BS EN 529:2005 are recommended. For short time exposure masks , EN149 type FF P3, EN 14387 type B or Type E model P3, EN 1827 class FMP3 are recommended (Non exhaustive list). For longer time of exposure full masks or masks with an apparatus providing fresh air are recommended – Full mask EN 143, EN 14387, EN 12083 class P3 or class XP3, EN12941 class TH3, EN 12942 TM3, EN14593 or EN138. (Non exhaustive list).
Hand protection: in case of dermal contact, use impervious chemical resistant protective gloves complying with EN 374 (required): material: butyl rubber, PVC, PTFE fluoro elastomer.
Eye protection: if splashes are likely to occur, chemical safety goggles e.g. EN 166 or full face mask EN 402 (required).
If splashes are likely to occur, wear suitable acid resistant protective clothing and rubber boots (required).

Nitric acid <75% :
Respiratory system : Wear suitable breathing apparatus if exposure levels exceed or may exceed the recommended exposure limits e.g.masks equiped with filter type E (EN 14387) and B, self contained breathing apparatus.
Skin and body : Wear chemical resistant, protective suit (EN 14605) and boots.
Hands : Chemical resistant gloves complying with EN 374 should be worn at all times when handling nitric acid e.g. > 8 hrs. (Breakthrough time) butyl rubber, PVC, PTFE fluoro elastomer.
Eyes : Use chemical safety goggles e.g. EN 166 or full face mask EN 402.

Stability and reactivity

Stability : Thermally stable in reaction terms at normal storage conditions.
Conditions to avoid : Direct heat, high temperature to avoid release of nitric acid fumes and damage of container.
Reaction with most common metals liberates hydrogen
Exothermic reaction with water.
Materials to avoid : Combustible materials, organic matter, reducing agents, alkalies, metallic powders, hydrogen sulphide, alcohols, chlorates and carbides, carbon steel, monel, copper, several other metals and alloys, flammable liquids and chromic acid.
Can react violently with reducing agents, strong bases, organic materials, chlorides and finally divided metals.
Is corrosive to concrete.
Hazardous decomposition products:
When heated, nitric acid and NOx vapours may be evolved.
For fire situations see section “Fire-fighting measures”.

Disposal considerations

Neutralize carrefully with lime or carbonates.
Dispose of in accordance with relevant local regulations