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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
30 March 2001 - 24 April 2001
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP study conducted to recognised guidelines.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
Not applicable
Analytical monitoring:
not required
Details on sampling:
Not applicable
Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Origin and Characterisation of Soil
The study was carried out using a loamy sand soil. The soil was collected by LandLook (Midlands), Leamington Spa, UK, and characterised by Soil Survey and Land Research Centre, Silsoe, UK.

The soil was collected from the upper 20 cm horizon by removing the surface vegetation and sampling the topsoil immediately below. The soil was sent to Inveresk Research where it was passed through a 5 mm sieve and thereafter kept in a moist, aerated condition until use. Supplied moisture content was determined at Inveresk Research as 12.9%.

The soil had not been treated with any pesticides or fertilisers for at least 5 years before collection and transportation to Inveresk Research. It was not treated with any pesticides or fertilisers during storage at Inveresk Research.

Preparation of Test and Control Soils
Control and test soils were prepared using approximately 75% loamy sand soil as described above and 25% horticultural grade sand on a dry weight basis. Moisture content of the sand was negligible.
Weights of sand and soil used for preparation of each treatment rate were 3.000 (± 0.004) kg and 10.162 (+ 0.000) kg respectively giving a total of 12 kg on a dry weight basis.
The test was conducted at nominal concentrations of 100, 10, 1 and 0 mg.kg Durad 310M. Treatment solutions were prepared by dissolving weighed amounts of Durad 310M in acetone. For the experiments at 100 and 10 mg.kg"1 Durad 310M, 1.201 and 0.123 g respectively were reconstituted in 10 ml acetone. For the 1 mg.kg"1 treatment rate, 0.126 g was reconstituted in 100 ml acetone.
Sand was spread out in a thin layer and 10 ml of the appropriate treatment solution was applied evenly over the surface of the sand using a glass pipette. Sand was mixed thoroughly during and after treatment, the solvent allowed to evaporate, and was then transferred to a cement mixer containing the loamy sand soil. The sand and soil were mixed for ca 10 min.

Untreated control soil was prepared similarly by adding 10 ml acetone to the sand.

Test Procedure
Samples of treated and control soil, prepared as described above, were placed in 1.1 litre capacity pots. Four pots were prepared for each treatment level for each species.

Five seeds of the appropriate species were sown in each pot and the pots arranged in a random block design. Separate random blocks were used for each species.
Pots were covered with polythene until emergence. They were incubated in a glasshouse during the test. Glasshouses environmental conditions are detailed. Pots were watered as necessary via saucers.
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Plant group:
other: Wheat
Details on test organisms:
Seeds of wheat {Triticum aestivum cv. Riband) were supplied by Dods of Haddington, East Lothian, UK.
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Plant group:
other: Radish
Details on test organisms:
Seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus cv French Breakfast 3) were supplied by Strawberry Corner Garden Centre, Wallyford, Scotland
Species:
Phaseolus aureus
Plant group:
other: Mung bean
Details on test organisms:
Seeds of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) were supplied by Real Foods, Edinburgh, UK.
Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
18 d
Remarks:
The test was terminated 19 days after sowing of wheat, 18 days after sowing for radish and 19 days after sowing for mung bean, 14 days after at least 50% emergence had been observed in the control pots.
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
Not specified; greenhouse conditions.
pH:
5.6
Moisture:
10% m/w
Details on test conditions:
Samples of treated and control soil, prepared as described above, were placed in 1.1 litre capacity pots. Four pots were prepared for each treatment level for each species.

Five seeds of the appropriate species were sown in each pot and the pots arranged in a random block design. Separate random blocks were used for each species.

Pots were covered with polythene until emergence. They were incubated in a glasshouse during the test. Glasshouses environmental conditions were recorded. Pots were watered as necessary via saucers.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
100, 10, 1 and 0 mg/kg.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Duration:
19 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Duration:
18 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Phaseolus aureus
Duration:
19 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Details on results:
Wheat
The LC50 for emergence and the EC50 for growth were both greater than the highest concentration tested.
No phytotoxic effects were observed in wheat seedlings during the test.

Radish
The LC50 for emergence and the EC50 for growth were both greater than the highest concentration tested.
No phytotoxic effects were observed in radish seedlings during the test.

Mung Bean
The LC50 for emergence and the EC50 for growth were both greater than the highest concentration tested.
No phytotoxic effects were observed in mung bean seedlings during the test.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
None reported.

Tables and supporting information are included in the attachment below. This study was conducted on the material with triphenyl phosphate present at <5% w/w

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The LC50 for emergence and EC50 for growth rate were both greater than the highest concentration tested, 100 mg/kg, in all species.
 
No phytotoxic effects were observed for any of the species tested.
Executive summary:

The effects of Durad 310M, incorporated into soil at concentrations of 100, 10, 1 and 0 mg/kg, upon the germination (emergence) and growth of seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum), radish (Raphanus sativus)and mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) were determined over periods of 19, 18 and 19 days respectively, representing 14 days after at least 50% emergence of control seedlings.

 

The LC50 for emergence and EC50 for growth rate were both greater than the highest concentration tested, 100 mg/kg, in all species.

 

No phytotoxic effects were observed for any of the species tested.

Description of key information

Toxicity to terrestrial plants

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Short-term EC50 or LC50 for terrestrial plants:
100 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information

Toxicity to terrestrial plants

Acute

The effects of Durad 310M, incorporated into soil at concentrations of 100, 10, 1 and 0 mg/kg, upon the germination (emergence) and growth of seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum), radish (Raphanus sativus)and mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) were determined over periods of 19, 18 and 19 days respectively, representing 14 days after at least 50% emergence of control seedlings.

 

The LC50 for emergence and EC50 for growth rate were both greater than the highest concentration tested, 100 mg/kg, in all species.

 

No phytotoxic effects were observed for any of the species tested.

Chronic

In accordance with column 2 of REACH Annex X, Long-term toxicity testing shall be proposed by the registrant if the results of the chemical safety assessment according to Annex I indicates the need to investigate further the effects of the substance and/or degradation products on terrestrial organisms. The choice of the appropriate test(s) depends on the outcome of the chemical safety assessment.

Based on the lack of toxicity within the short term plant study on an analogous material, and the fact that risk recommendations are implemented to avoid exposure to the environment, it is proposed that a long term toxicity test in plants is not required.