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EC number: 931-597-4
CAS number: -
Table 2. Results and uncertainties of the leaching test.
Concentrations are expressed on a dry weight (d.w.) basis. L / S =
liquid to solid ratio. **) = If ICP-OES result is below the method
quantitation limit, determination is made using GFAAS. ICP-OES =
Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. GFAAS =
Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. CVAAS = Cold vapour
atomic absorption spectrometry. IC = Ion Chromatography. sb =
Leaching properties of Ash was studied in a non-GLP compliant study
according to European standard SFS-EN 12457-3. Ash was homogenised to
particle size <4 mm followed by two phase extraction with ultraclean
water (18 MΩ/cm, pH 5 - 7.5) in L/S = 2 and L/S = 10. The filtrate was
analysed with atomic absorption, ICP-OES and liquid chromatigraphic
methods. The most leachable metal from Ash was barium. Molybdenium,
lead, selenium and zinc leached to a minor extent. The most leachable
ions were chloride and sulphate, of which chloride leached ten times
more than sulphate. Some Dissolved Organic Carbon was found in the
Table 1 Acid ammonium acetate soluble elements
Ammonium acetate soluble metals from Ash were analysed in non-GLP
compliant laboratory with a non-guideline method. The aim of this study
was to simulate long term leaching properties of metals from Ash.
Extraction ratio was 1:10 (V/V) and extraction time was 1 h. pH of the
test was 4.65. Before determination, the extract was separated from the
solid residue by filtration. The element concentrations of the extracts
were determined with inductively coupled plasma optical emission
spectrometer (ICP-OES). Of nutriets, calcium was clearly the most
extractable element. Also magnesium, sulphur, silicon and potassium
obtain remarkable long-term leaching properties, but approx. 25 times
less than calcium. Zinc, copper and barium extracted as amounts of over
10 mg/kg (d.w.). Of the most toxic components, lead extracted most
followed by nickel, arsenic and cadmium. Mercury was not found to be
acidic ammonium acetate soluble element.
Table 7. Parameters of validation measured at termination of leaching
Table 8. Concentrations of compounds in leachates (sampled at L/S 1, 2
and 3) together with concentrations in solution used for dilution in the
ecotox-tests. Samples were filtrated through 0.45 μm pore-filter prior
analyses. For comparison, concentrations in natural water sampled at the
location Landsortsdjupet in the Baltic See are also shown. This sample
is assumed to be comparable with the origin of the water used for
*Data för spädmedium hämtad ur rapport av Värmeforsk (2011). Spädmedium
är filtrerat och upphettat brackvatten hämtat utanför Stockholms
universitets fältstation på Askö.
**Data gällande för Landsortsdjupet från Forsberg (2005) med undantag
för DOC där data är hämtade från Österlund (2010) och är representativa
för Bottniska viken och Gotlandsdjupet.
*** Förväntad halt i Havsvatten.
A modified two stage batch leaching test (EN 12457-3) was used to
analyse leaching of metals and salts from 5 -years aged bottom ash in a
non-GLP study. Metal analyses were performed for both ash and leachates.
The leachates were analyzed for the following elements Ca, Fe, K, Mg,
Na, Si, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V, Zn (mod.
EPA-200.7 and EPA-200.8) and Hg (EN ISO 17852:2008), anions chloride,
fluoride, sulphate (mod. EN ISO 10304-1 and EN ISO 10304-2) together
with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) (EN
1484). The most readily leached metals were Na, Ca, K, Mg and Si. The
concentration of Na, K and Cl was reduced by 75 %, 65 % and 90% from L/S
1 to L/S 3, respectively. Of the trace metals, concentrations of Mo and
Al were highest in the first eluate (L/S 1). Release of Cd and Mn was
slower as their concentration increased during the test. Continuous,
more steady leaching was found for Ca, Al and Zn. The concentration of
DOC decreased simultaneously with decreasing copper concentration
(approx. 35% from L/S 1 to L/S 3). pH was approx. 8 during the different
Table 1 presents leaching properties of different ashes produced with
different kind of fuels (mg/kg). Limit values for utilisation presented
in the table 2 are not exceeded in the studied ashes (Table 1).
Table 1. Leaching properties of selected metals (i.e. critical
components, see Environmental fate properties) from different ashes
produced with different kind of fuels (mg/kg).
REF; Grate firing
REF; Grate firing (washed)
REF; BFC bottom ash
REF; BFC fly ash
Mixed biofuel; BFC bottom ash
Mixed biofuel; BFC fly ash
Mixed biofuel, incl. REF; BFC bottom ash
Mixed biofuel, incl. REF; BFC fly ash
Limit value of utilisation I
Limit value of utilisation II
L/S2 / L/S10
9.5 / 10.2
9.7 / 10.5
11.2 / 11.8
11.0 / 11.5
11.1 / 11.1
12.1 / 11.7
11.6 / 11.4
12.7 / 12.5
560 / 55
79 / 19
176 / 195
2570 / 290
48 / 39
499 / 138
104 / 70
1497 / 719
<0.02 / <0.2
<0.02 / <0.02
0.02 / 0.1
<0.02 / <0.1
<0.02 / <0.1
<0.06 / 0.2
0.05 / 0.14
<0.01 / <0.05
130 / 340
BFC = Bubbling Bed Combustion
REF = Recovered Fuel
value I for unpaved constructions, limit value II for paved
constructions (Mroueh et al. 2000).
Table 2. Minor (mg/kg) and major (%) components in ashes related to
Mroueh, U.-M. et al. 2000. Sivutuotteet maarakenteissa.
Tekes-teknologiakatsaus 93/2000. 87 s. (In Finnish)
Leaching tests with L/S 2 and L/S 10 were performed for wood, peat,
mixed biofuel and Recycled Fuel (REF) ashes originating from four
different types of power plants in a non-GLP study. Results were
compared to limit values of unpaved and paved constructions (Mroueh et
al. 2000). Limit values of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, or Sulphate were not
exeeded in the leachates of different ashes. Although concentrations of
these metals were clearly higher in REF ashes than in mixed biofuel
ashes, there was no remarkable difference in leaching test results.
Table 1. Preliminary (Estimated) Analysis
Comment: Unable to detect on the UV spectrometer - no peak absorbance
obtained. Therefore HPLC and UV spectrometry unsuitable methods of
Table 2. Formal Analytical Determination
UV- Analytical Determinations
The water solubility of Ash was studied in a GLP compliant laboratory
according to Method A.6. in Comission Regulation No 440/2008. The
preliminary shaking test with a flask method showed very low water
solubility. Thus, column elution method was used for more detailed
study. The column elution showed no UV peak absorbance, which together
with the shaking test led to the conclusion of water solubility lower
than 1 mg/l.
The water solubility of Ash was studied in a GLP compliant laboratory according to Method A.6. in Commission Regulation No 440/2008. The water solubility was found to be < 1 mg/l. Despite the major proportion of Ash is non-soluble minerals, salts and some metals leach from it. Leaching properties were studied with four different leaching tests.
Of the analysed ions in water leachate,
Chlorine was most abundant. Additionally, some dissolved organic
compounds were detected, but no phenol compounds were present.
In ammonium acetate extraction,
major components were found to leach followingly: Ca>Mg>Si>K>Na>Al>P>Fe.
Of these, Ca leached 25 fold more than Mg, Si and K, to which the
difference of the amounts of Na and Al was approx. 10 fold. P was
leached 5 -10 fold less than the previous group and Fe 15 times less
than P. Aim of Ash use in fertilisation is to release main nutrients.
Aluminium, however, can have adverse effects due to its toxic
properties. Mobility and toxic effects of aluminium in environment are
pH dependent. Binding at humic substances typically decrease toxicity.
Table 2 presents leaching properties of different ashes produced with
different kind of fuels (mg/kg) (Ranta & Wahlström (2002)). Limit values
for utilisation presented in the table 2 are exceeded neither in Ash
(Table 1) nor in the studied ashes (Table 2).
Table 2. Leaching properties of different ashes produced with different
kind of fuels (mg/kg) according to Ranta & Wahlström (2002).
REF; FBC bottom ash
REF; FBC fly ash
FBC = Fludised Bed Combustion; BFB = Bubbling Bed
Table 3. Minor (mg/kg) and major (%) components in ashes related to
Table 2 (Ranta & Wahlström (2002)).
sequential leaching test (Breitholz M. et al. (2012)) with L/S 1, 2, and
3, Na, Ca, K, Mg and Si were the most leached major components. The
concentration of Na, K and Cl was reduced by 75 %, 65 % and 90% from L/S
1 to L/S 3, respectively. Of the minor components, concentrations of As,
Ba, Cr, Cu, Pb ad Sb decreased between 30% and 70%. The
concentration of DOC decreased simultaneously with decreasing copper
concentration (approx. 35% from L/S 1 to L/S 3). Concentrations of Cd
and Mn were found to slightly increase from L/S1 to L/S 3 and
concentrations of Ca, Al and Zn were stabile during all studied
Isännäinen S, Huotari H (1994) Tuhkan ja metsäteollisuuden muiden
jätejakeiden prosessointi lannoitekäyttöön soveltuvaksi. Esiselvitys.
VTT Energia, Jyväskylä, 1994. In Finnish.
U.-M. et al. 2000. Sivutuotteet maarakenteissa. Tekes-teknologiakatsaus
93/2000. 87 s. In Finnish.
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