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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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long-term toxicity to birds
Data waiving:
other justification
Justification for data waiving:

Description of key information

According to column 2 of REACH Annex X (9.6.1), the study does not need to be conducted since results from mammalian toxicity testing indicate that Ash has a low potential to cause adverse long term or reproductive effects. 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

No long-term or reproductive toxicity tests on birds are available. However, a repeated dose toxicity experiment with rats exposed to Ash via ingestion in a 28-day GLP-complient, guideline test did not indicate any serious toxic effects. This result is supported by

several inhalation toxicity studies of coal fly ash in mammals as well as an observational study on workers exposed to pulverized fuel ash. The toxicological profile of Ash in birds can therefore be predicted from the mammalian studies. According to them, no toxic effects are likely to occur in birds at relevant exposure levels.