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EC number: 231-072-3
CAS number: 7429-90-5
All available studies data were used in a weight of evidence approach to cover this endpoint. Literary studies investigating the effects of aluminum in the aquatic environment have extensively used test solutions with aluminum concentrations above that of its solubility limit. Results of these studies are therefore limited for the investigation of intrinsic toxicity.
“acute” toxicity studies (i.e. <12 days) have been conducted with fish
in acidic soft waters due to concern about aluminium leaching in
environments sensitive to acid rain. Many
of these experiments were conducted in flow-through systems to mimic the
effects of mixing zones where some type of substance (i.e. lime) is
added to increase the system pH. In
the cases where effects due to transient forms of aluminium were
investigated (i.e. Teien et al. 2004, 2006), fish were maintained in
certain sections of a raceway, with a specified time of equilibration,
or time after mixing. Most
of the existing literature for fish focused on effects to Salmo
it is among the most sensitive fish species. Roy
and Campbell (1997) showed that DOM had a protective effect against
aluminium toxicity to S.
et al. 1994 suggested just a minor effect of HA on aluminium toxicity
is possible that in some of the flow-through studies, aluminium toxicity
is due to transient forms of aluminium, because transient forms may be
present for the first several minutes after mixing in the flow-through
diluter mixing chambers.
there are many studies that have investigated the toxicity of aluminium
to fish, relatively few evaluated aluminium toxicity over a range of pH
and Campbell (1995) demonstrated that aluminium toxicity, on the basis
of monomeric aluminium, decreased (less toxic) as pH decreased from 5.3
to 4.4. At
weakly alkaline pH (i.e. pH 7.58 to 8.14), Gundersen et al. (1994)
demonstrated very little effect of pH or hardness on aluminium toxicity
higher pH ranges. Studies
conducted at Norwegian
Institute for Water Research (
Thirteen acute toxicity
studies to fish are provided in Table # "Overview of short-term effects
on fish" (below). All the studies are for informational purposes with a
total of seven fish species, and are presented for demonstrating the
completeness of the literature review. The
available 96-h LC50s varied from 0.078 to > 218.6 mg
Al/L, and 16-d LC50s ranged from 0.43 to 3.91 mg Al/L. The
NOECs (96 h) varied from > 0.07 to > 50 mg Al/.
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