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EC number: 231-072-3
CAS number: 7429-90-5
Flarend et al.(2001) studied the uptake of aluminium from
aluminium chlorohydrate-containing antiperspirant using 26Al as a tracer.The
study was carried out using two human volunteer subjects, one male and
one female.0.4 mL of 21% 26Al-ACH solution was applied to an area
"3x4” in the left axilla of the two volunteers.Application
was done using a pre-soaked (deionized water) cotton swab. The area was
allowed to air dry afterwards. After the ACH had been applied and left
to dry, the area was occluded with a bandage with adhesive edges that
did not contact the area of ACH application. Each morning for the next 6
days strips of tape were applied to the axilla and then stripped away,
the area gently washed with towelettes–and the bandage, tape strippings
and towelettes sealed in freezer bags and stored in a refrigerator until
analysis. The female subject developed a mild irritation to the bandage
adhesive that required cessation of their use after 4 days. Blood
samples were taken by venipuncture before ACH application (0 hours) and
also at 6 and 14 hours post-application; then on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 9, 11, 14, 18, 24, 32, 42 and 53 after application. Twenty-four hour
urine samples were collected daily for the first 11 days after
application; then from days 13 to 14, 17 to 18, 23 to 24, 31 to 32, 41
to 42, and 52 to 53.The samples were preserved using 10 - 20% (by
volume) conc. HNO3. 26Al in the samples was determined by accelerator
mass spectrometry.ICP-MS was used to measure Al levels in a
subset of urine samples to ensure that the amount of Al in the urine
would not influence the results from the AMS analyses.Based on the
amounts of 26Al in the bandages, tapes and towelettes, 48% of the Al
applied to the underarm of the male subject was recovered from the skin
surface in 6 days; 31% was recovered in 4 days in the female subject.
Levels of 26Al in the blood showed a clear increase after the
application of ACH and 26Al could still be detected 15 days after
application.Although 26Al could be detected in the blood, the
levels were too low for reliable estimation of the % absorbed. Results
showed that 0.0082% of the estimated absorbed 26Al was eliminated in the
urine of the male subject and 0.016% in the urine of the female subject.
A correction factor of 0.85 was applied (assumes 80 to 90% of absorbed
aluminium is eliminated in urine over the period of 40 days (Priest et
al. 1995; Hum Exp Toxicol 14: 287 - 293 cited) and a factor of 2 to
account for two underarms. In conclusion, aluminium is absorbed into the
systemic circulation on single occluded application of aluminium
chlorohydrate to underarms. Based on urine measurements, 0.01% of the
applied aluminium was absorbed showing that aluminium does not cross the
dermal barrier effectively.
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