Registration Dossier

Manufacture, use & exposure

Uses at industrial sites

Documentsopen allclose all

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC 0: Other: Use of metal; emission fraction (release after RMM): air: 0.08 %; water: 0.01 % (Specific Environmental Release Categories (SPERC) for metals and metal compounds (Eurometaux, 2010))
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Product category used:
PC 7: Base metals and alloys
Sector of end use:
SU 15: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes

Uses at industrial sites

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Reference
Name:
Nickel
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
solid: bulk
Reference substance:
Nickel
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Machining of nickel alloys and nickel coated metal objects
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Name of activity / technique:
Machining of nickel alloys and nickel coated metal objects
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Product category used:
PC 7: Base metals and alloys
Sector of end use:
SU 15: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6a: Use of intermediate
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6b: Use of reactive processing aid at industrial site (no inclusion into or onto article)
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Product category used:
PC 0: Other: Not relevant
Sector of end use:
SU 8: Manufacture of bulk, large scale chemicals (including petroleum products)
SU 9: Manufacture of fine chemicals
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Use of brazing alloys ES1 STP discharge
Name of activity / technique:
Use of brazing alloys ES2 marine discharge
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
18.1 Use of brazing alloys
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Product category used:
PC 7: Base metals and alloys
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR
ContribScenEnvirWorkerRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
yes
Application of site specific biological STP sludge on agricultural soil:
yes

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
ERC
Remarks:
ERC 8c, f
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
ERC
Remarks:
ERC 8c, f

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
ERC
Remarks:
ERC 8c, f
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
ERC
Remarks:
ERC 8c, f

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Estimated 75th percentile shift mean concentration for manual operations based on professional judgement taking account of measurement data for alloy production which employs some similar processes and may give rise to similar levels of exposure.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Estimated 75th percentile shift mean concentration for manual operations based on professional judgement taking account of measurement data for alloy production which employs some similar processes and may give rise to similar levels of exposure.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Estimated 75th percentile shift mean concentration for manual operations based on professional judgement taking account of measurement data for alloy production which employs some similar processes and may give rise to similar levels of exposure.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Estimated 75th percentile shift mean concentration for manual operations based on professional judgement taking account of measurement data for alloy production which employs some similar processes and may give rise to similar levels of exposure.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Use of nickel metal powder in the production of magnets - Discharge to fresh water via municipal sewage treatment plant
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Use of nickel metal powder in the production of magnets - Direct discharge to fresh water
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Use of nickel metal powder in the production of magnets - Direct discharge to marine water
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Raw material handling and mixing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Name of activity / technique:
Compacting and pressing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Name of activity / technique:
Smelting and casting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Name of activity / technique:
Sintering
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
Sand blasting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Grinding
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Packaging
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Wet cleaning
Process category (PROC):
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Name of activity / technique:
Cleaning/removal of dust
Process category (PROC):
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Product category used:
PC 7: Base metals and alloys
Sector of end use:
SU 15: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
SU 17: General manufacturing, e.g. machinery, equipment, vehicles, other transport equipment
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Manufacturing of batteries using positive nickel electrodes ES1 STP discharge
Name of activity / technique:
Manufacturing of batteries using positive nickel electrodes ES2 direct discharge
Name of activity / technique:
Manufacturing of batteries using positive nickel electrodes ES3 marine discharge
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 13: Treatment of articles by dipping and pouring
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Name of activity / technique:
12.1 Raw material handling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
12.2 Manufacture of NiSO4 solution
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
12.3 Electroplating
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 13: Treatment of articles by dipping and pouring
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Name of activity / technique:
12.4 Manufacture of nickel nitrate solution
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
12.5 Preparation of the nickel sintered strip
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 13: Treatment of articles by dipping and pouring
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
12.6 Cleaning and maintenance
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Product category used:
PC 0: Other: Battery products
Sector of end use:
SU 16: Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products, electrical equipment
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR
ContribScenEnvirWorkerRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
yes
Application of site specific biological STP sludge on agricultural soil:
yes

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model
ContribScenWorkersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: this operation is not of long-term duration
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Higher of two measurements for unbagging NiSO46H2O
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: This operation is not ofl ong-term duration
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Higher of two measurements for unbagging NiSO46H2O
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3x long-term inhalation exposure estimate
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3x long-term inhalation exposure estimate
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3x long term exposure estimate
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3x long term exposure estimate
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3x long term exposure measurement
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3x long term exposure measurement
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3x long term exposure estimate
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3x long term exposure estimate
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Read across based on 3 measurements from the catalyst industry, corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no RPE is used the long-term exposure estimate is 0.342
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3x long term exposure estimate corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no RPE is used, the acute exposure estimate is 1.02, which is lower than the acute DNEL
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Read across based on 3 measurements from the catalyst industry, corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no RPE is used the long-term exposure estimate is 0.342
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3x long term exposure estimate corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no RPE is used, the acute exposure estimate is 1.02, which is lower than the acute DNEL
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC 0: Other: Manufacture and recycling of massive metal, metal powder or metal compounds; emission fraction (release after RMM): air: 0.3 %; water: 0.02 % (Specific Environmental Release Categories (SPERC) for metals and metal compounds (Eurometaux, 2010))
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6a: Use of intermediate
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Product category used:
PC 0: Other: not reported
Sector of end use:
SU 0: Other: no data
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Powder handling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Name of activity / technique:
Powder pressing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Name of activity / technique:
Sintering
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
Post-sintering operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
Wet cleaning
Process category (PROC):
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Name of activity / technique:
Cleaning/removal of dust
Process category (PROC):
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Product category used:
PC 7: Base metals and alloys
Sector of end use:
SU 17: General manufacturing, e.g. machinery, equipment, vehicles, other transport equipment
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Product category used:
PC 7: Base metals and alloys
PC 38: Welding and soldering products, flux products
Sector of end use:
SU 14: Manufacture of basic metals, including alloys
SU 17: General manufacturing, e.g. machinery, equipment, vehicles, other transport equipment
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC 0: Other: Use of metals in plating emission fraction (release after RMM): air: 0.4%; water: 0.6% (Specific Environmental Release Categories (SPERC) for metals and metal compounds (Eurometaux, 2010))
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 13: Treatment of articles by dipping and pouring
Product category used:
PC 14: Metal surface treatment products
Sector of end use:
SU 0: Other: no data
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC7: Use of functional fluid at industrial site
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Product category used:
PC 0: Other: Other, Cleaning and maintenance
Sector of end use:
SU 15: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC7: Use of functional fluid at industrial site
Name of activity / technique:
Sputter deposition ES1 only air emissions
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
21.1 Physical vapour deposition by sputtering
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Product category used:
PC 0: Other: Not relevant
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
SpERC
Remarks:
SPERCs data for “Industrial use: shaping” are used (Eurometaux, 2012).

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Estimated 75th percentile long-term exposure for entirely enclosed process,. Based on expert judgement in the absence of measurement data, the exposure estimates take account of the clean room standards of cleanliness associated with this process
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Estimated as 10 x 75th percentile long-term average exposure to allow for the uncertainty in the estimate of shift mean exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Estimated 75th percentile long-term exposure for entirely enclosed process,. Based on expert judgement in the absence of measurement data, the exposure estimates take account of the clean room standards of cleanliness associated with this process
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Estimated as 10 x 75th percentile long-term average exposure to allow for the uncertainty in the estimate of shift mean exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Estimated for specialist clean room, no direct dermal contact with Ni, the dermal exposure was estimated as being close to the limit of detection
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC 0: Other: Formulation of massive metal or metal powder in alloys emission fraction (release after ,RMM): air: 0.007%; water: 0.003% (Specific Environmental Release Categories (SPERC) for metals and metal compounds (Eurometaux, 2010))
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Product category used:
PC 38: Welding and soldering products, flux products
Sector of end use:
SU 14: Manufacture of basic metals, including alloys
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Product category used:
PC 7: Base metals and alloys
Sector of end use:
SU 15: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Metal surface treatment – nickel electroplating and nickel electroforming ES1 STP discharge
Name of activity / technique:
Metal surface treatment – nickel electroplating and nickel electroforming ES2 direct discharge
Name of activity / technique:
Metal surface treatment – nickel electroplating and nickel electroforming ES3 marine discharge
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 13: Treatment of articles by dipping and pouring
Process category (PROC):
PROC 15: Use as laboratory reagent
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Name of activity / technique:
10.1 Surface finishing operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
PROC 13: Treatment of articles by dipping and pouring
PROC 15: Use as laboratory reagent
Name of activity / technique:
10.2 Cleaning and maintenance
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Product category used:
PC 14: Metal surface treatment products
Sector of end use:
SU 15: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR
ContribScenEnvirWorkerRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
yes
Application of site specific biological STP sludge on agricultural soil:
yes

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model
ContribScenWorkersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x estimated 75th percentile of long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x estimated 75th percentile of long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Read across exposure estimate as 75th percentile of insoluble nickel (hands & arms) from CES3.3 cutting and packing in GES 3: Electrolytic refining of Ni matte via Ni sulphate solution for Ni metal production
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 90th percentile MEASE modelling corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no RPE is used, the long term exposure estimate is 0.342
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x estimated long-term exposure, corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no RPE is used, the acute exposure is 1.026
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 90th percentile MEASE modelling corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no RPE is used, the long term exposure estimate is 0.342
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x estimated long-term exposure, corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no RPE is used, the acute exposure is 1.026
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6a: Use of intermediate
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Product category used:
PC 2: Adsorbents
PC 19: Intermediate
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 13: Treatment of articles by dipping and pouring
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Product category used:
PC 0: Other: Battery products
Sector of end use:
SU 16: Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products, electrical equipment
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Intermediate use of nickel metal for the manufacture of nickel salts - Direct discharge to fresh water
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6a: Use of intermediate
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Handling of massive material
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Wet chemical reaction
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
Name of activity / technique:
Control room operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Wet cleaning
Process category (PROC):
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Name of activity / technique:
Cleaning/removal of dust
Process category (PROC):
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Sector of end use:
SU 9: Manufacture of fine chemicals
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC7: Use of functional fluid at industrial site
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Product category used:
PC 7: Base metals and alloys
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 13: Treatment of articles by dipping and pouring
Product category used:
PC 14: Metal surface treatment products
Sector of end use:
SU 13: Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products, e.g. plasters, cement
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6a: Use of intermediate
Name of activity / technique:
Production of Ni salts from Ni metal ES1 direct discharge
Name of activity / technique:
Production of Ni salts from Ni metal ES2 marine discharge
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Name of activity / technique:
11.1 Production of Ni salts from Ni metal
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Product category used:
PC 0: Other: Not relevant
Sector of end use:
SU 9: Manufacture of fine chemicals
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR
ContribScenEnvirWorkerRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model
ContribScenWorkersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Estimate of the 75th percentile long-term mean exposure based on expert judgements from limited measurement data discussed in the EU RAR (2008-2009) and information on exposures to Ni associated with powder handling in other sectors. Assumes LEV
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10 x 75th percentile of long-term average for powder handling. This allows for the extreme short term variability of exposure concentrations that is associated with handling powders.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Estimate of the 75th percentile long-term mean exposure based on expert judgements from limited measurement data discussed in the EU RAR (2008-2009) and information on exposures to Ni associated with powder handling in other sectors. Assumes LEV
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10 x 75th percentile of long-term average for powder handling. This allows for the extreme short term variability of exposure concentrations that is associated with handling powders.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Estimate of the 75th percentile long-term mean exposure based on expert judgements from limited measurement data discussed in the EU RAR (2008-2009) and information on exposures to Ni associated with powder handling in other sectors. Assumes LEV
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10 x 75th percentile of long-term average for powder handling. This allows for the extreme short term variability of exposure concentrations that is associated with handling powders.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Estimate of the 75th percentile long-term mean exposure based on expert judgements from limited measurement data discussed in the EU RAR (2008-2009) and information on exposures to Ni associated with powder handling in other sectors. Assumes LEV
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10 x 75th percentile of long-term average for powder handling. This allows for the extreme short term variability of exposure concentrations that is associated with handling powders.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Welding
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Name of activity / technique:
Welding
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Product category used:
PC 38: Welding and soldering products, flux products
Sector of end use:
SU 14: Manufacture of basic metals, including alloys
SU 15: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
SU 17: General manufacturing, e.g. machinery, equipment, vehicles, other transport equipment
SU 19: Building and construction work
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6a: Use of intermediate
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 27a: Production of metal powders (hot processes)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Product category used:
PC 0: Other: not relevant
Sector of end use:
SU 0: Other: SU 3: Industrial Manufacturing
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Intermediate use of nickel metal for the manufacture of nickel-containing inorganic pigments - Discharge to fresh water via municipal sewage treatment plant
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6a: Use of intermediate
Name of activity / technique:
Intermediate use of nickel metal for the manufacture of nickel-containing inorganic pigments - Direct discharge to fresh water
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6a: Use of intermediate
Name of activity / technique:
Intermediate use of nickel metal for the manufacture of nickel-containing inorganic pigments - Direct discharge to marine water
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6a: Use of intermediate
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Raw material handling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Name of activity / technique:
Closed mixing and transfer process
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Automated transfer process
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Manual transfer operation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Name of activity / technique:
Drying and calcining
Process category (PROC):
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
Wet cleaning
Process category (PROC):
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Name of activity / technique:
Cleaning/removal of dust
Process category (PROC):
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Sector of end use:
SU 9: Manufacture of fine chemicals
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Production of nickel-containing products (electronics) ES1 STP discharge
Name of activity / technique:
Production of nickel-containing products (electronics) ES2 marine discharge
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Name of activity / technique:
16.1 Raw material handling/powder handling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
16.2 Production and handling of finished product
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Name of activity / technique:
16.3 Cleaning and maintenance
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Product category used:
PC 0: Other: Not relevant
Sector of end use:
SU 16: Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products, electrical equipment
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR
ContribScenEnvirWorkerRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
yes
Application of site specific biological STP sludge on agricultural soil:
yes

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
SpERC
Remarks:
SPERCs data for “Industrial use in metallic coating” are used (Eurometaux, 2012).
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
SpERC
Remarks:
SPERCs data for “Industrial use in metallic coating” are used (Eurometaux, 2012).

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
SpERC
Remarks:
SPERCs data for “Industrial use in metallic coating” are used (Eurometaux, 2012).
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
SpERC
Remarks:
SPERCs data for “Industrial use in metallic coating” are used (Eurometaux, 2012).

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
yes
Application of site specific biological STP sludge on agricultural soil:
yes

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
SpERC
Remarks:
SPERCs data for “Industrial use in metallic coating” are used (Eurometaux, 2012).
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
SpERC
Remarks:
SPERCs data for “Industrial use in metallic coating” are used (Eurometaux, 2012).

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
SpERC
Remarks:
SPERCs data for “Industrial use in metallic coating” are used (Eurometaux, 2012).
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
SpERC
Remarks:
SPERCs data for “Industrial use in metallic coating” are used (Eurometaux, 2012).

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model
ContribScenWorkersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10 x 75th percentile long-term estimate. A factor of 10 was used to take account of the extreme variability in exposure concentration through time that arises during powder handling operations.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10 x 75th percentile long-term estimate. A factor of 10 was used to take account of the extreme variability in exposure concentration through time that arises during powder handling operations.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: No significant exposure is expected provided that firing process is enclosed. Estimate based on expert judgement in the absence of measurement data.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x long-term exposure estimate
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: No significant exposure is expected provided that firing process is enclosed. Estimate based on expert judgement in the absence of measurement data.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x long-term exposure estimate
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Long-term mean exposure for cleaning in areas where powder has been handled. Estimated as half of that associated with raw materials/powder handling, based on expert judgement
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10 x long-term exposure estimate. A factor of 10 was used to take account of the extreme variability in exposure concentration through time that arises during powder handling operations.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Long-term mean exposure for cleaning in areas where powder has been handled. Estimated as half of that associated with raw materials/powder handling, based on expert judgement
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10 x long-term exposure estimate. A factor of 10 was used to take account of the extreme variability in exposure concentration through time that arises during powder handling operations.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10 x 75th percentile long-term estimate. A factor of 10 was used to take account of the extreme variability in exposure concentration through time that arises during powder handling operations.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10 x 75th percentile long-term estimate. A factor of 10 was used to take account of the extreme variability in exposure concentration through time that arises during powder handling operations.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: No significant exposure is expected provided that firing process is enclosed. Estimate based on expert judgement in the absence of measurement data.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x long-term exposure estimate
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: No significant exposure is expected provided that firing process is enclosed. Estimate based on expert judgement in the absence of measurement data.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x long-term exposure estimate
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Long-term mean exposure for cleaning in areas where powder has been handled. Estimated as half of that associated with raw materials/powder handling, based on expert judgement
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10 x long-term exposure estimate. A factor of 10 was used to take account of the extreme variability in exposure concentration through time that arises during powder handling operations.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Long-term mean exposure for cleaning in areas where powder has been handled. Estimated as half of that associated with raw materials/powder handling, based on expert judgement
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10 x long-term exposure estimate. A factor of 10 was used to take account of the extreme variability in exposure concentration through time that arises during powder handling operations.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Use of nickel metal and nickel containing alloys for the production of steel and other alloys powder by atomisation ES1 STP discharge
Name of activity / technique:
Use of nickel metal and nickel containing alloys for the production of steel and other alloys powder by atomisation ES2 direct discharge
Name of activity / technique:
Use of nickel metal and nickel containing alloys for the production of steel and other alloys powder by atomisation ES3 marine discharge
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 27a: Production of metal powders (hot processes)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Name of activity / technique:
35.1 Raw material handling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
35.2 Melting Operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Name of activity / technique:
35.3 Atomisation Operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
35.4 Sieving and filling containers
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Name of activity / technique:
35.5 Further processing : Cold Isostatic Pressing and Hot Isostatic Pressing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
35.6 Cleaning and maintenance
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Product category used:
PC 7: Base metals and alloys
Sector of end use:
SU 14: Manufacture of basic metals, including alloys
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR
ContribScenEnvirWorkerRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
yes
Application of site specific biological STP sludge on agricultural soil:
yes

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
SpERC
Remarks:
SPERCs data for “Formulation in alloys” are used (Eurometaux, 2012).
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
SpERC
Remarks:
SPERCs data for “Formulation in alloys” are used (Eurometaux, 2012).
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
SpERC
Remarks:
SPERCs data for “Formulation in alloys” are used (Eurometaux, 2012).
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model
ContribScenWorkersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Max conc from 4 samples over 136 min during ‘prep of charge (gas)’ (FFP3 mask mandatory, gloves voluntary, no LEV) corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 40). If no APF is applied to the long-term value, the long-term exposure value is 4.293.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10 x long-term exposure estimate for ‘prep of charge (gas);’ allows for variability associated with handling powders corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 40). If no APF is applied to the acute value, the acute value is 42.93.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Max conc from 4 samples over 136 min during ‘prep of charge (gas)’ (FFP3 mask mandatory, gloves voluntary, no LEV) corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 40). If no APF is applied to the long-term value, the long-term exposure value is 4.293.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10 x long-term exposure estimate for ‘prep of charge (gas);’ allows for variability associated with handling powders corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 40). If no APF is applied to the acute value, the acute value is 42.93.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Max conc from 4 samples over 275 min during “transfer of raw material in the furnace, melting, atomization” corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 40). If no APF is applied to the long-term value, the long-term exposure value is 3.178.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x long-term exposure estimate for “work on the furnace: transfer of raw material in the furnace, melting, atomization” corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no APF is applied to the acute value, the acute value is 9.53.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Max conc from 4 samples over 275 min during “transfer of raw material in the furnace, melting, atomization” corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 40). If no APF is applied to the long-term value, the long-term exposure value is 3.178.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x long-term exposure estimate for “work on the furnace: transfer of raw material in the furnace, melting, atomization” corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no APF is applied to the acute value, the acute value is 9.53.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x long-term exposure estimate for “work on the furnace: transfer of raw material in the furnace, melting, atomization”.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x long-term exposure estimate for “work on the furnace: transfer of raw material in the furnace, melting, atomization”.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10 x long-term exposure estimate for ‘transfer of powder to the hoppers, handling of powder (gas)’.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10 x long-term exposure estimate for ‘transfer of powder to the hoppers, handling of powder (gas)’.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3x long-term exposure estimate
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3x long-term exposure estimate
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x long-term exposure estimate for ‘maintenance & reparation on the equipment’.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x long-term exposure estimate for ‘maintenance & reparation on the equipment’.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC 0: Other: Use of metal emission fraction (release after RMM): air: 0.08%; water: 0.01% (Specific Environmental Release Categories (SPERC) for metals and metal compounds (Eurometaux, 2010))
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Product category used:
PC 0: Other: no data
Sector of end use:
SU 0: Other: no data
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes

Uses at industrial sites

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Regulatory status:
use of the substance in mixtures below the concentration limit specified in REACH Art. 56(6)

Referenceopen allclose all

Name:
Nickel
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
solid: particulate/powder
Reference substance:
Nickel
Name:
Nickel
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
solid: bulk
Related composition:
Nickel
Reference substance:
Nickel
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
use of nickel metal in powder metallurgy
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Raw materials handling- Iron (scrap iron and fine powder) and nickel ( pellets and fine powder) are received into storage for processing.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Powderpreparation-furnacing(smelting, melting, and alloying) and atomisation. The feedstock is heated in a furnace and the melt is turned into a nickel-based powder by atomising the melt stream to produce fine, spherical or granular powder suitable for metal injection molding and other powder metallurgy work.
The molten metal passes through the center portion of a pressure nozzle of a tundish through which a gas or liquid flows to divide the molten metal into droplets on exit from the nozzle. The melt stream may be sub-divided further by firing a jet of gas (in an inverted cone shape) from a ring nozzle (e.g. as slits around the lower edge of the exit from the pressure nozzle) into the stream to give a more finely divided powder with a narrower particle size range.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
The feedstock is heated in a furnace and the melt is turned into a nickel-based powder by atomising the melt stream to produce fine, spherical or granular powder suitable for metal injection molding and other powder metallurgy work.
Powderpreparation-furnacing(smelting, melting, and alloying) and atomisation. The molten metal passes through the center portion of a pressure nozzle of a tundish through which a gas or liquid flows to divide the molten metal into droplets on exit from the nozzle. The melt stream may be sub-divided further by firing a jet of gas (in an inverted cone shape) from a ring nozzle (e.g. as slits around the lower edge of the exit from the pressure nozzle) into the stream to give a more finely divided powder with a narrower particle size range.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
The feedstock is heated in a furnace and the melt is turned into a nickel-based powder by atomising the melt stream to produce fine, spherical or granular powder suitable for metal injection molding and other powder metallurgy work.
Powderpreparation-furnacing(smelting, melting, and alloying) and atomisation.The molten metal passes through the center portion of a pressure nozzle of a tundish through which a gas or liquid flows to divide the molten metal into droplets on exit from the nozzle. The melt stream may be sub-divided further by firing a jet of gas (in an inverted cone shape) from a ring nozzle (e.g. as slits around the lower edge of the exit from the pressure nozzle) into the stream to give a more finely divided powder with a narrower particle size range.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 27a: Production of metal powders (hot processes)
Name of activity / technique:
Powder finishing- crushing, milling and sieving. Drying (if water–atomised) and chemically reducing or ‘mechanically’ alloying the crude Ni powder product and crushing, milling and sieving the fine pure Ni metal or Fe-alloyed Ni powder product.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
Powder finishing- crushing, milling and sieving. Drying (if water–atomised) and chemically reducing or ‘mechanically’ alloying the crude Ni powder product and crushing, milling and sieving the fine pure Ni metal or Fe-alloyed Ni powder product.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Powder blending and packaging-The pure Ni, alloyed Fe-Ni and powder mixes with binder and release agents are combined packaged into big bags or drums.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
DSU Powder Mixing (for pressing or injection moulding)-This involves the blending of a pressing lubricant or an organic binder with the metal or metal alloy powder.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Name of activity / technique:
DSU Powder Mixing (for pressing or injection moulding)-This involves the blending of a pressing lubricant or an organic binder with the metal or metal alloy powder.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Powder pressing-In die pressing the mixed powder is pressed in a mould made up of a rigid tool set comprising a die, punches and mandrels or core rods in die pressing. In isostatic pressing, hydrostatic pressure is applied to the mould in a pressurised vessel
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Powder pressing-In die pressing the mixed powder is pressed in a mould made up of a rigid tool set comprising a die, punches and mandrels or core rods in die pressing. In isostatic pressing, hydrostatic pressure is applied to the mould in a pressurised vessel
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Name of activity / technique:
Continuous sintering-Solid phase sintering of the compacted form involves heating of the material, usually in an inert atmosphere, to a temperature that is below the melting point of the major constituent. If a minor constituent forms a liquid phase at the sintering temperature then the process is known as liquid phase sintering.
Techniques such as powder (closed-die hot) forging may then be applied to conventionally cold pressed and sintered forms and to one-step hot compacted forms.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
Batch sintering-The sintered part is finished using techniques such as shot peening, hardening, annealing, steam treatment and local cold deformation (rolling of the surface layers of a sintered form with a meshing rolling tool).
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
Injection moulding-The mixed powder and binder are combined and heated then injected into a mould. The injection moulded part is released from the mould (as the green body) and is de-bound (binder removal to make the brown body) to make it ready for sintering..
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Name of activity / technique:
Post-sintering operations-The sintered part is finished using techniques such as shot peening, hardening, annealing, steam treatment and local cold deformation (rolling of the surface layers of a sintered form with a meshing rolling tool).
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
Cleaning and maintenance-Cleaning and maintenance of plant and premises
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Product category used:
PC 0: Other:
Sector of end use:
SU 17: General manufacturing, e.g. machinery, equipment, vehicles, other transport equipment
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
ContribScenEnvirWorkerRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Product (article) characteristic

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Other technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Particular considerations on the waste treatment operations:
no

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Place of use:
indoor and outdoor

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Product (article) characteristic

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Particular considerations on the waste treatment operations:
other:

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Place of use:
indoor

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

Predicted exposure concentration
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: Estimated local concentrations based on measurements by industry and measured regional concentrations are used for calculation of PEC TIER 3-RWC
ContribScenWorkersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (material with high dustiness)
Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
indoor
Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (material with high dustiness)
Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
indoor
Other conditions of use

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (material with high dustiness)
Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
indoor
Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (material with high dustiness)
Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
indoor
Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (material with high dustiness)
Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
indoor
Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 75th percentile value from 9 personal exposure measurements

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (material with high dustiness)
Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
indoor
Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Read across 90th percentile for personal exposure measurement (hands, & arms &) reported for an analogous powder and machine setting operations in magnet production
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 75th percentile value from 21 personal exposure measurements

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (material with high dustiness)
Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
indoor
Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Read across 90th percentile for personal exposure measurement (hands, & arms &) reported for an analogous powder and machine setting operations in magnet production
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 75th percentile value from 21 personal exposure measurements

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (material with high dustiness)
Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
indoor
Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Read across 90th percentile for personal exposure measurement (hands & arms ) reported for an analogous powder and machine setting operations in magnet production
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 75th percentile value from 9 personal exposure measurements

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (material with high dustiness)
Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
indoor
Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 75th percentile value from 9 personal exposure measurements
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Read across 90th percentile for personal exposure measurement (hands & arms ) reported for an analogous powder and machine setting operations in magnet production

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (material with high dustiness)
Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
indoor
Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Read across based on 7 personal exposure measurements reported for packaging of carbonyl nickel powder (GES 1 Nickel production by carbonyl refining of nickel matte)
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Read across 90th percentile for personal exposure (hands and arms) measurement reported for an analogous alloying and melting process in carbonyl nickel refining (GES 1 Nickel production by carbonyl

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (material with high dustiness)
Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
indoor
Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Read across 90th percentile for personal exposure (hands &arms) measurement reported for an analogous alloying and melting process in stainless steel production.

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (material with high dustiness)
Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
indoor
Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Read across 90th percentile for personal exposure (hands &arms) measurement reported for an analogous alloying and melting process in stainless steel production.

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (material with high dustiness)
Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
indoor
Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (material with high dustiness)
Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
indoor
Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (material with high dustiness)
Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
indoor
Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 90th percentile exposure estimate using MEASE for PROC 27a {ind, Ni>25%, NDH, NDU, incidental exposure, duration >240 minutes, LEV, RPE, gloves}

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (material with high dustiness)
Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
indoor
Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Read across 90th percentile for personal exposure (hands &arms) measurement reported for an analogous raw material handling operation in electrolytic Ni refining.

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC 0: Other: Use of metal emission fraction (release after RMM): air: 0.08%; water: 0.01% (Specific Environmental Release Categories (SPERC) for metals and metal compounds (Eurometaux, 2010))
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: no data
Product category used:
PC 7: Base metals and alloys
Sector of end use:
SU 15: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 13: Treatment of articles by dipping and pouring
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Product category used:
PC 7: Base metals and alloys
Sector of end use:
SU 14: Manufacture of basic metals, including alloys
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Use of nickel metal in surface treatment (nickel electroplating and nickel electroforming technologies) - Discharge to fresh water via municipal sewage treatment plant
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Use of nickel metal in surface treatment (nickel electroplating and nickel electroforming technologies) - Direct discharge to fresh water
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Use of nickel metal in surface treatment (nickel electroplating and nickel electroforming technologies) - Direct discharge to marine water
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Handling of low dusty materials
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Name of activity / technique:
Handling of solutions as raw material
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
Mixing and blending
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Name of activity / technique:
Nickel electroplating, nickel electroforming and electroless nickel plating
Process category (PROC):
PROC 13: Treatment of articles by dipping and pouring
Name of activity / technique:
Testing of solution composition
Process category (PROC):
PROC 15: Use as laboratory reagent
Name of activity / technique:
Wet cleaning
Process category (PROC):
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Name of activity / technique:
Cleaning/removal of dust
Process category (PROC):
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Product category used:
PC 14: Metal surface treatment products
Sector of end use:
SU 15: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
SU 17: General manufacturing, e.g. machinery, equipment, vehicles, other transport equipment
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC7: Use of functional fluid at industrial site
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 7: Industrial spraying
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 10: Roller application or brushing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Product category used:
PC 7: Base metals and alloys
PC 14: Metal surface treatment products
PC 15: Non-metal-surface treatment products
PC 38: Welding and soldering products, flux products
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Use of nickel metal and nickel containing alloys for the production of steel and other alloys powder by atomisation - FW STP
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Use of nickel metal and nickel containing alloys for the production of steel and other alloys powder by atomisation - FW direct
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Use of nickel metal and nickel containing alloys for the production of steel and other alloys powder by atomisation - marine
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Handling of dusty raw materials
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Name of activity / technique:
Handling of massive raw materials
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Melting, casting and tapping
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Name of activity / technique:
Atomisation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 27a: Production of metal powders (hot processes)
Name of activity / technique:
Powder handling and packaging
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Name of activity / technique:
Powder pressing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Wet cleaning
Process category (PROC):
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Name of activity / technique:
Cleaning/removal of dust
Process category (PROC):
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Product category used:
PC 7: Base metals and alloys
Sector of end use:
SU 14: Manufacture of basic metals, including alloys
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC7: Use of functional fluid at industrial site
Name of activity / technique:
Use of Ni metal for Thermal Spraying ES1 only air emissions
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 7: Industrial spraying
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 10: Roller application or brushing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Name of activity / technique:
34.1 Raw Material Handling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
34.2 Hand operated metal spraying operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 7: Industrial spraying
PROC 10: Roller application or brushing
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Name of activity / technique:
34.3 Thermal spraying/coating operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 7: Industrial spraying
PROC 10: Roller application or brushing
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Name of activity / technique:
34.4 Cleaning and Maintenance Operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and Maintenance
Product category used:
PC 7: Base metals and alloys
PC 14: Metal surface treatment products
PC 15: Non-metal-surface treatment products
PC 38: Welding and soldering products, flux products
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
yes
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
SpERC
Remarks:
SPERCs data for “Industrial use in metallic coating” are used (Eurometaux, 2012).

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model
ContribScenWorkersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Assumed to be same as acute exposure as a conservative estimate in the absence of measured data.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Assumed to be same as acute exposure as a conservative estimate in the absence of measured data.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3x the long-term exposure estimate based on measured data.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3x the long-term exposure estimate based on measured data.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Use of pre-reduced nickel containing catalysts - no releases
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC6a: Use of intermediate
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Industrial use of powdered catalysts
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Industrial use of shaped catalysts (extrudates, pellets, tablets, spheres, encapsulated powders)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 2: Chemical production or refinery in closed continuous process with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Sector of end use:
SU 8: Manufacture of bulk, large scale chemicals (including petroleum products)
SU 9: Manufacture of fine chemicals
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Use of nickel metal for thermal spraying - only air
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Powder handling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Name of activity / technique:
Hand operated metal spraying operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 7: Industrial spraying
Name of activity / technique:
Thermal spraying and coating operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 7: Industrial spraying
Name of activity / technique:
Finishing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 10: Roller application or brushing
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Cleaning/removal of dust
Process category (PROC):
PROC28: Manual maintenance (cleaning and repair) of machinery
Product category used:
PC 7: Base metals and alloys
PC 14: Metal surface treatment products
PC 38: Welding and soldering products, flux products
Sector of end use:
SU 17: General manufacturing, e.g. machinery, equipment, vehicles, other transport equipment
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Uses at industrial sites

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Name of activity / technique:
Powder metallurgy: use of powder ES1 Only air emissions
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 27a: Production of metal powders (hot processes)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Name of activity / technique:
9.1 Raw materials handling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
9.2 Powder preparation - Furnacing and atomisation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
PROC 27a: Production of metal powders (hot processes)
Name of activity / technique:
9.3. Powder finishing - crushing, milling and sieving
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
9.4. Powder blending and packaging
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
9.5. DSU powder mixing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
PROC 8a: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at non-dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
9.6 Powder pressing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Name of activity / technique:
9.7a: Continuous sintering
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
9.7b: Batch sintering
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
9.8: Injection moulding
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Name of activity / technique:
9.9: Post-sintering operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
9.10: Cleaning and maintenance
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Product category used:
PC 0: Other: Other uses
Sector of end use:
SU 17: General manufacturing, e.g. machinery, equipment, vehicles, other transport equipment
Substance supplied to that use in form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant for this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model
ContribScenWorkersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 90th percentile value from MEASE modelling, corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no APF is applied to the long-term value, the long-term exposure value is 0.65.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x the long-term exposure estimate corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no APF is applied to the acute value, the acute value is 1.95.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 90th percentile value from MEASE modelling corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no APF is applied to the long-term value, the long-term exposure value is 0.65.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x the long-term exposure estimate corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no APF is applied to the acute value, the acute value is 1.95.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Read across 90th percentile for personal exposure measurement (over hands & arms) reported for an analogous raw material handling operation in electrolytic Ni refining
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 90th percentile value from MEASE modelling, corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no APF is applied to the long-term value, the long-term exposure value is 0.65.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x the long-term exposure estimate corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no APF is applied to the acute value, the acute value is 1.95
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 90th percentile value from MEASE modelling, corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no APF is applied to the long-term value, the long-term exposure value is 0.65.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x the long-term exposure estimate corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no APF is applied to the acute value, the acute value is 1.95
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Read across 90th percentile for personal exposure measurement (over hands & arms) reported for an analogous alloying and melting process in stainless steel production
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 90th percentile from MEASE modelling, corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 10). If no RPE is used, the long-term exposure estimate is 0.39
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x long-term exposure estimate, corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 10). If no RPE is used, the acute exposure estimate is 1.17 which is below the acute DNEL
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 90th percentile from MEASE modelling, corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 10). If no RPE is used, the long-term exposure estimate is 0.39
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x long-term exposure estimate, corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 10). If no RPE is used, the acute exposure estimate is 1.17 which is below the acute DNEL
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
inhalation
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Read across based on 7 personal exposure measurements for packaging of carbonyl nickel powder (GES 1) corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 40). If no APF is applied to the long-term value, the long-term exposure value is 1.44
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10x estimated long-term exposure corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 40). If no APF is applied to the acute value, the acute value is 14.4
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Read across based on 7 personal exposure measurements for packaging of carbonyl nickel powder (GES 1) corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 40). If no APF is applied to the long-term value, the long-term exposure value is 1.44
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 10x estimated long-term exposure corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 40). If no APF is applied to the acute value, the acute value is 14.4
Type o