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Ecotoxicological information

Ecotoxicological Summary

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Hazard for aquatic organisms

Freshwater

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC aqua (freshwater)
PNEC value:
0.312 mg/L
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor
PNEC freshwater (intermittent releases):
0.514 mg/L

Marine water

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC aqua (marine water)
PNEC value:
0.312 mg/L
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

STP

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC STP
PNEC value:
10 mg/L
Assessment factor:
100
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

Sediment (freshwater)

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC sediment (freshwater)
PNEC value:
1.141 mg/kg sediment dw
Extrapolation method:
equilibrium partitioning method

Sediment (marine water)

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC sediment (marine water)
PNEC value:
1.141 mg/kg sediment dw
Extrapolation method:
equilibrium partitioning method

Hazard for air

Hazard for terrestrial organisms

Soil

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC soil
PNEC value:
0.045 mg/kg soil dw
Extrapolation method:
equilibrium partitioning method

Hazard for predators

Secondary poisoning

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no potential for bioaccumulation

Additional information

PNEC water(freshwater)

 

 

Value

Assessment factor

Remarks/Justification

PNEC water (freshwater)

0.3125 mg/L

10

Based on the results of short-term toxicity studies and (Q)SAR calculations with freshwater and saltwater aquatic organisms

 

The general principle of the method given by the ECHA guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.10 (May 2008)is that the result from a laboratory test is divided by an appropriate assessment factor. PNECs are estimated by division of the lowest value for the toxicity with the relevant assessment factor. Results of long-term tests are preferred to those of short-term tests, because such results give a more realistic picture of effects on the organisms during their entire life cycle.

 

Short-term results from fish, daphnia and algae representing three trophic levels are available. Long-term results from fish, daphnia, mysid shrimp and algae representing three trophic levels have been calculated using (Q)SAR.

 

The most critical result is the 72 hour NOEC in algae of 3.125 mg/L. Since the algae grow inhibition test is, in principle, a multi-generation test, it seems appropriate in this assessment to consider 3.125 mg/L as the lowest end of the toxicity range for aquatic organisms. This range covers three taxonomic groups, fish, invertebrates and algae, and taking into account the recommendations of the ECHA guidance, a factor of 10 to the lowest end of the short-term toxicity range is applied, obtaining a PNEC for aquatic organisms of 0.3125 mg/L.

 

PNEC aquatic organisms = short-term toxicity range/10 = 0.3125 mg/L

 

PNEC water (marine water)

 

 

Value

Assessment factor

Remarks/Justification

PNEC water (marine water)

0.3125 mg/L

10

Based on the results of short-term toxicity studies and (Q)SAR calculations with freshwater and saltwater aquatic organisms

 

The general principle of the method given by the ECHA guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.10 (May 2008) is that the result from a laboratory test is divided by an appropriate assessment factor. PNECs are estimated by division of the lowest value for the toxicity with the relevant assessment factor. Results of long-term tests are preferred to those of short-term tests, because such results give a more realistic picture of effects on the organisms during their entire life cycle.

 

Short-term results from fish, daphnia and algae representing three trophic levels are available. Long-term results from fish, daphnia, mysid shrimp and algae representing three trophic levels have been calculated using (Q)SAR.

 

The most critical result is the 72 hour NOEC in algae of 3.125 mg/L. Since the algae grow inhibition test is, in principle, a multi-generation test, it seems appropriate in this assessment to consider 3.125 mg/L as the lowest end of the toxicity range for aquatic organisms. This range covers three taxonomic groups, fish, invertebrates and algae, and taking into account the recommendations of the ECHA guidance, a factor of 10 to the lowest end of the short-term toxicity range is applied, obtaining a PNEC for aquatic organisms of 0.3125 mg/L.

 

PNEC aquatic organisms = short-term toxicity range/10 = 0.3125 mg/L

 

PNEC water (intermittent release)

 

 

Value

Assessment factor

Remarks/Justification

PNEC water (intermittent release)

0.514 mg/L

100

Based on the results of short-term toxicity studies with aquatic organisms

 

The general principle given by the ECHA guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.10 (May 2008) is that the PNEC-values derived for freshwater or marine waters are based on the implicit assumption that the environmental exposure is constant. However, in many cases, discharges will be limited in time. In such cases, the environmental exposure will also be limited in time, and it is assumed that when exposure stops rapidly, populations can tolerate higher concentrations than when it is long lasting.

 

Short-term results from fish, daphnia and algae representing three trophic levels are available. The most critical short-term result is the 72 hour EC50 in algae of 51.4 mg/L. Therefore, it seems appropriate in this assessment to consider 51.4 mg/L as the lowest end of the short-term toxicity range for aquatic organisms. This range covers three taxonomic groups, fish, invertebrates and algae, and taking into account the recommendations of the ECHA guidance, a factor of 100 to the lowest end of the short-term toxicity range is applied, obtaining a PNEC for aquatic organisms of 0.514 mg/L.

 

PNEC aquatic organisms = short-term toxicity range/100 = 0.514 mg/L

 

PNEC Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)

 

 

Value

Assessment factor

Remarks/Justification

PNEC Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)

10 mg/L

100

Based on the results of an activated sludge respiration inhibition test

 

The general principle of the method given by the ECHA guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.10 (May 2008) is that the result from a laboratory test is divided by an appropriate assessment factor. PNECs are estimated by division of the lowest value for the toxicity with the relevant assessment factor.

 

The PNEC is derived from the available Activated Sludge Respiration Inhibition Test. An assessment factor (AF) of 100 is applied to the test concentration of 1000 mg/L at which no impact on activate sludge performance is observed, obtaining a PNEC for microorganisms of 10 mg/L.

 

PNEC microorganisms = test concentration with no toxicity /100 = 10 mg/L

 

 

PNEC sediment (freshwater)

 

 

Value

Assessment factor

Remarks/Justification

PNEC sediment (freshwater)

1.141 mg/kg

Not applicable

Equilibrium partitioning

Chemical class for Koc – QSAR: Organic acids

Log Kow < -1

 

An estimation of the PNEC sediment can be performed according to the equilibrium partitioning method given by the ECHA guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.10 (May 2008):

 

PNEC sediment = (Ksusp-water / RHOsusp) * PNECwater * 1000

 

Where:

 

Ksusp-water = 0.913 m3 /m3 (according to EUSES2.1)

RHOsusp = 1150 kg/m3 (according to the “R16” Guidance document (2008) equation R16-23)

PNECwater [freshwater] = 0.3125 mg/L

Conversion factor wet-dry suspended matter = 4.6

 

Hence:

PNECsediment wet = (0.913 / 1150) * PNECwater * 1000 = 0.248 mg/kg

PNECsediment dry = 0.248 * 4.6 = 1.141 mg/kg

 

PNEC sediment (marine water)

 

 

Value

Assessment factor

Remarks/Justification

PNEC sediment (marine water)

1.141 mg/kg

Not applicable

Equilibrium partitioning.

Chemical class for Koc – QSAR: Organic acids

Log Kow < -1

 

An estimation of the PNEC sediment can be performed according to the equilibrium partitioning method given by the ECHA guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.10 (May 2008):

 

PNEC sediment = (Ksusp-water / RHOsusp) * PNECwater * 1000

 

Where:

Ksusp-water = 0.913 m3 /m3 (according to EUSES2.1)

RHOsusp = 1150 kg/m3 (according to the “R16” Guidance document (2008) equation R16-23)

PNECwater [marine] = 0.3125 mg/L

Conversion factor wet-dry suspended matter = 4.6 (according to EUSES2.1)

 

 

Hence:

PNECsediment = (0.913 / 1150) * PNECwater * 1000 = 0.248 mg/kg

PNECsediment dry = 0.248 * 4.6 = 1.141 mg/kg

 

 

PNEC soil

 

 

Value

Assessment factor

Remarks/Justification

PNEC soil

0.0449 mg/kg

Not applicable

Equilibrium partitioning

Chemical class for Koc – QSAR: Organic acids

Log Kow < -1

Water solubility: 1320 mg/L

Vapour pressure: 5 Pa at 20°C

MW: 152 g/mol

 

An estimation of the PNECsoil can be performed according to the equilibrium partitioning method given by the ECHA guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.10 (May 2008):

 

PNECsoil = (Ksoil-water / RHOsoil) * PNECwater * 1000

 

Where:

Ksoil-water = 0.216 m3 /m3 (according to EUSES2.1)

RHOsoil = 1700 kg/m3 (according to the “R16” Guidance document (2008) equation R16-23)

PNECwater [freshwater] = 0.3125 mg/L

Conversion factor wet-dry soil = 1.13 (according to EUSES2.1)

 

Hence:

PNECsoil wet = (0.216 / 1700) * PNECwater * 1000 = 0.0397 mg/kg

PNECsoil dry = 0.0397 * 1.13 = 0.0449 mg/kg

 

PNEC oral

 

 

Value

Assessment factor

Remarks/Justification

PNEC oral

--

--

Not relevant

 

The substance has no potential to cause toxic effects and there are no indications that it bioaccumulates in higher organisms. Based on the low bioaccumulation potential and its ready biodegradability secondary poisoning is not regarded as relevant.

Conclusion on classification

Aquatic Toxicity acute

The fish, daphnia, and algae acute aquatic toxicity are greater than 1 mg/L (96h LC50 (fish) > 100 mg/L, 48h EC50 (daphnia) = 93.3mg/L, and 72h ErC50 (algae) =51.4 mg/L). As a result, the substance does not meet the criteria for acute classification according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008, Annex I section 4.1.

 

Aquatic Toxicity chronic

The fish, daphnia, and algae acute aquatic toxicity are greater than 10 mg/l and lower than 100 mg/L (96h LC50 (fish) > 100 mg/L, 48h EC50 (daphnia) = 93.3mg/L, and 72h ErC50 (algae) =51.4 mg/L). As well, the substance is very soluble, ready biodegradable and has a Log Kow of -1.91. As a result, the substance does not meet the criteria for chronic classification according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008, Annex I section 4.1.