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The available reliable ecotoxicity results selected for the effect of vanadium on aquatic organisms are all based on pentavalent V substances (NaVO3, NH4VO3, Na3VO4, V2O5and ammonium polyvandate). All data were reported based on dissolved elemental V concentrations. The data available do not allow conclusions on the effect of water properties (pH, hardness, etc.) or V substance on toxicity of vanadium to aquatic organisms. Therefore, all reliable toxicity data for all V substances, expressed on a dissolved vanadium basis, were grouped.

The table below presents an overview of the lowest reliable toxicity data selected for hazard assessment of vanadium.

Table xx. Lowest reliable toxicity data selected for hazard assessment of vanadium in the aquatic compartment.

Trophic level  Substance  Species Parameter Endpoint  Value(µg V/L)  Reference
 Acute toxicity, freshwater                
 Fish  V2O5  Leuciscus idus  mortality   96-h LC50   693  Mitterer, 1999
 Invertebrates   V2O5  Daphnia magna  mortality   48-h LC50   1520  Kimball, 1978
 Algae   V2O5 Scenedesmus subspicatus   growth rate  72-h EC50  2907  Mitterer, 1999
 Acute toxicity, marine water               
 Fish

NH4VO3

 Limanda limanda  mortality  96 -h LC50  27800  Taylor et al., 1985
 Invertebrates  NaVO3  Americamysis bahia  mortality  48-h LC50  13300 Woods et al., 2004
 Chronic toxicity, freshwater              
 Fish  V2O5  Jordanella floridae  growth  30d-EC10  76  Holdway and Sprague, 1979
 Invertebrates  NaVO3  Daphnia magna  ephippia production  98d-NOEC  560  Van der Hoeven, 1990
 Algae  V2O5  Scenedesmus subspicatus  growth rate 72 -h EC10  716  Mitterer, 1999
 Chronic toxicity, marine water    
 Mollusc  V2O5  Crassostrea gigas  development of eggs 48h NOEC 25   Fichet and Miramand, 1998
 Echinoderm  V2O5  Paracentrotus lividus  development of eggs  48h NOEC  50  Fichet and Miramand, 1998

Reliable short-term toxicity data for freshwater organisms are available for three trophic levels: aquatic invertebrates, fish and algae. The lowest acute effect value was a 96 -h LC50 of 693 µg V/L observed for the effect of V2O5flakes on mortality of the fish Leuciscus idus. Acute toxicity data are also available for marine fish and invertebrates, with the lowest acute effect 48-h LC50 value of 13300 µg V/L for the mysid shrimp Americamysis bahia. Reliable long-term toxicity data are available for 6 freshwater organisms covering the three trophic levels. The lowest chronic NOEC or EC10, 76 µg V/L, was observed for the effect of V2O5in a 30-day growth test with second generation flagfish larvae (Jordanella floridae) originating from exposed fish. Reliable long-term toxicity data are also available for the effect of V2O5on the development of eggs from two marine organisms (mollusc Crassostrea gigas and echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus). The NOEC values varied between 25 and 50 µg V/L with the lowest value observed for a 48-h development test of Crassostrea gigas eggs.

There are insufficient data for calculation of a PNECwater with the statistical extrapolation approach (species sensitivity distribution, SSD). For the implementation of the SSD-methodology, the effects dataset should contain reliable chronic no-effect levels (NOEC/EC10-values) for at least 10 to 15 species, representing at least 8 different taxonomic groups. Reliable long-term toxicity data are only available for 6 freshwater organisms covering three trophic levels: aquatic invertebrates (Daphnia magna), fish (Jordanella floridae, Pimephales promelas, Poecilia reticulata and Clarias batrachus) and algae (Scenedesmus subspicatus).