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Background and ambient concentrations of vanadium in the environment (air, aquatic, terrestrial and sediment compartment) based on monitoring data were evaluated to determine the typical background and reasonable worst case ambient concentration of vanadium in freshwater, sediment, soil and air for the EU-27 and Norway (see attached report "Exposure assessment of vanadium - Measured V-levels in EU surface water, soil, sediment and air"). Specifically, large data sets that originate from National, federal and Academic Environmental Agencies and Institutes, or measurements from national/international monitoring programs (e.g. EIONET, FOREGS, GEMAS) were taken into account. The natural background concentration is the natural concentration of an element in the environment that reflects the situation before any human activity affected the natural equilibrium. Because of historical and current anthropogenic input from diffuse sources, the accurate measurement of natural background concentrations is not feasible in the European environment anymore. As an alternative, baseline background concentrations are measured. This is the concentration of an element in the present or past corresponding to very low anthropogenic pressure (i.e., assumed to be close to the natural background). Ambient concentrations are defined as the sum of the natural background of an element with diffuse anthropogenic input in the past or present (i.e., influence of point sources not included). Reasonable worst-case (RWC) ambient concentration levels are used for the regional risk assessment (regional PEC).

Compartment Unit  Median baseline background concentration  Reasonable worst case ambient concentration
Fresh surface water  µg V/L 0.49 2.03
Stream sediment  mg V/kg dw  25.7 43.2 
 Agricultural soil (0 -20 cm)  mg V/kg dw 29.5 42.2
 Grazing land (0 -10 cm)  mg V/kg dw 29.5 47.0
 Air  ng V/m3  No data 4.31

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