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EC number: 215-149-9
CAS number: 1306-25-8
basic assumption made in this hazard assessment and throughout this CSR
(in accordance to the same assumption made in the EU RA process) is that
the ecotoxicity of cadmium and cadmium compounds is due to the Cd++ion.
As a consequence, all aquatic and sediment PNEC's in this report
are expressed as “cadmium”, not as CdTe as such, because ionic cadmium
is considered to be the causative factor for toxicity. The only way
cadmium compounds can differ in this respect is in their capacity to
release cadmium ions into (environmental) solution. That effect is
checked eventually in the transformation/dissolution tests.
Classification of CdTe was made based on
CdTe-specific ecotoxicity data. Ecotoxicity tests were performed using Daphnia
magna, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Danio rerio
as standard test species.
1. Acute toxicity results
Toxicity results were available for fish,
daphnia and algae.
The lowest LC50 was observed for Daphnia
magna; which is 1.14 mg CdTe/L. This leads to no acute
Besides determining classification on
ecotoxicity results, classification can also be determined from the T/D
results. The ERV of Cd2+ is 18 µg/L. The results of the T/D tests
indicates that 1mg CdTe/L brings 15 µg Cd/L into the solution. This
indicates that the ERV of 18 µg Cd/L is not reached; which leads to no
acute classification. This confirms the classification based on the
2. Chronic ecotoxicity of CdTe
Test results were available for Daphnia
magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The fish test was
waived based on the results of the acute ecotoxicity test, combined
with the knowledge that invertebrates are the most sensitive taxonomic
group for the Cd++ ion, as follows from the extensive database on
chronic toxicity of soluble Cd compounds: invertebrates mean toxicity
3.04µg Cd/l (22
species NOECs, lowest value 0.21µg/l); fish mean toxicity 10.8µg Cd/l (18
species NOECs, lowest value 0.47µg/l); algae mean toxicity 9.13µg Cd/l (8
species NOECs, lowest value 0.85µg/l).
The lowest NOEC was found for Daphnia
classification criteria, the “degradability” of the substance needs to
be determined. Cadmium, like all metals, is an element, and therefore
the criterion “degradability” cannot be applied as it is for organic
substances. As a surrogate for assessing “degradability”, the concept of
“removal from the water column” was developed to assess whether or not a
given metal ion would remain present in the water column upon addition
(and thus be able to excert a chronic effect) or would be rapidly
removed from the water column. In this concept, “rapid removal” (defined
as >70% removal within 28 days) is considered as equivalent to “rapidly
degradable”. The rapid removal of Cadmium from the water column is
documented. Consequently, the metal is considered as equivalent to being
‘rapidly degradable” in the context of classification for chronic
aquatic effects. As
a result, the chronic 1 criterion = 10µg/l. Considering this in
combination with the ecotoxicity data given above, results in
classification of CdTe for aquatic effects as "chronic 3".
The T/D results of CdTe (see section 5.6.)
with a loading of 1 mg/L resulted after 28 days in 19.0 µg Cd/L. This
indicates that the ERV value of 0.21 µg Cd/L is not reached at 0.01 mg/L
loading but at 0.1 mg/L loading. This would lead to a chronic
classification of 2. However, the results of the ecotoxicity experiments are
considered to overrule the T/D results, so CdTe is classified as "chronic
3" for aquatic effects.
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