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EC number: 215-149-9
CAS number: 1306-25-8
In general, BCF and BAF data for Cd show an inverse relationship to exposure concentrations.BCF's for cadmium are highest in algae and lowest in fish. In algae, external adsorption of Cd is one of the reasons for high BCF. Hardness and Cd concentration in the water are inversely related to BCF.Median BCF (per dry weight) reported in the EU risk assessment (ECB 2008) are: 115116 (algae), 5000 (invertebrates), 233 (vertebrates)The risk assessment mentions a median BAF for vertebrates of 167. Highest BAF is observed for the invertebrate Hyalella (170000), at a very low Cd concentration.
BCF's for cadmium are highest in algae and lowest in fish; High BCF in
algae does not necessarily reflect high bioconcentration, because a
significant part of the Cd is absorbed to the outer side of the
organisms, and not taken up. Another factor of error is the lack of gut
clearance in invertebrates. Organs (kidney, liver) contain most Cd.
Main influencing factors for Cd BCF are hardness and Cd concentration in
the water. Increasing water hardness reduces Cd uptake. BCF is also
inversely related to Cd concentration in water.
McGeer et al (2003) recently extensively the reviewed evidence on
bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of cadmium as a function of
exposure concentration in a number of taxonomic groups (algae, molluscs,
arthropods, annelids, salmonid fish, cyprinid fish, and other fish). The
data clearly illustrated that there is a significant degree of control
on internal cadmium content. In general, BCF data showed an inverse
relationship to exposure concentrations. In all cases, the relationship
of BCF to exposure was significant and negative. The slopes of the
BCF/BAF – exposure relations were: algae: -0.72, insects: -0.32,
arthropods: -0.61, molluscs: -0.50, salmonids: -0.87, Centrarchids:
-0.47, Killifish: -0.05, other fish: -0.72. Overall, species mean slope
was -0.49 +/- 0.04 (McGeer et al 2003. Environm. Toxicology & Chemistry,
vol 22, nr 5, 1017 -1037).
Considering the weight of evidence and mainly because of this well
documented inverse relationship between BCF and exposure, it is
concluded that Cd and its compounds are not to be considered as
bioaccumulative. It has also been demonstrated that Cd is not
biomagnifying in the lower parts of the foodchain.
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