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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Not specified
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Peer reviewed paper using methodology similar to recognised methods. Daphnia similar to OECD method. No purity or GLP data.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
No data
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
The standard solution of the test material was prepared by dissolving the test material in bidistilled water.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia
- Strain: Daphnia magna
- Source: nda
- Feeding during test: nda
- Method of breeding: Cultured in an environmetnal chamber at 20 ± 1°C with a Photoperiod of 16 h light and 8 h dark.
- Feeding during test: NDA


ACCLIMATION
- Type and amount of food: Daphnia magna were fed daily with a suspension of Selenastrum capricornutum and Saccharomices cerevisiae at a feeding rate of 300,000 cells.ml-1 of both
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
No data
Hardness:
No data
Test temperature:
20±1°C
pH:
7.8 ± 0.2
Dissolved oxygen:
No data
Salinity:
No data
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The experiments were carried out in quadruplicate without modifying the culture conditions. The tested concentrations were: 32, 16, 12, 8, and 4 µg.l-1. At the end of the test the immobile individuals were counted.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Daphnia magna Straus were cultured in an environmental chamber.
- Aeration: The solution was continually aerated.
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5 (less than 24 h old)
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The rearing medium and the dilution water consisted of (mg/L) CaCl2 x 2H2O: 292.5; MgSO4 x H2O: 123.25; NaHCO3: 64.75; KCI: 5.75 and 1 µg/L of B12 vitamin.


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 h light and 8 h dark


Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
12.5 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95 % CL: 10.0-15.5 µg/L
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
9.8 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95 % CL: 7.6-12.1 µg/L
Key result
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
5.5 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1.9 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
The data obtained from the 48 h toxicity tests with Daphnia magna have been elaborated in accordance with the Probits analysis and displayed as EC50 value, that is the toxicant concentration necessary to immobilise 50 % of the organisms examined.
The EC50 at 48 h was of 9.8 µg/L with the 95 % confidence interval of 7.6 - 12.1 µg/L. The NOEC was 1.9 µg/L.
The EC50 at 24 h was of 12.5 µg/Lwith the 95 % confidence interval of 10.0 - 15.5 µg/L. The NOEC was 5.5 µg/L.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No data
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Immobility data were analysed by Probits Analysis to estimate the EC50 values at 24 and 48 h, their 95 % confidence intervals and NOEC values.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The EC50 value at 48 h was of 9.8 µg/L with the 95 % confidence interval of 7.6-12.1 µg/L. The 48 hNOEC value was 1.9 µg/L.
The EC50 value at 24 h was of 12.5 µg/Lwith the 95 % confidence interval of 10.0-15.5 µg/L. The 24 hNOEC value was 5.5 µg/L.
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of the test material to aquatic invertebrates was investigated in a study similar to OECD 202.

The data obtained from the 48 h toxicity tests with Daphnia magna have been elaborated in accordance with the Probits analysis and displayed as EC50 values, that is the toxicant concentration necessary to immobilise 50 % of the organisms examined.

The EC50 value at 48 h was of 9.8 µg/L1 with the 95 % confidence interval of 7.6 -12.1 µg/L. The 48 h NOEC was 1.9 µg/L. The EC50 value at 24 h was 12.5 µg/L with the 95 % confidence interval of 10.0 - 15.5 µg/L. The 24 h NOEC was 5.5 µg/L.

Description of key information

The data obtained from the 48 h toxicity tests with Daphnia magna have been elaborated in accordance with the Probits analysis and displayed as EC50 value, that is the toxicant concentration necessary to immobilise 50 % of the organisms examined. The EC50 value at 48 h was 9.8 µg/L with a 95 % confidence interval of 7.6 - 12.1 µg/L. The 48 h NOEC was 1.9 µg/L. The EC50 value at 24 h was 12.5 µg/L with a 95 % confidence interval of 10.0 - 15.5 µg/L. The 24 h NOEC was 5.5 µg/L.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
9.8 µg/L

Additional information

The key study (Miana et al, 1993), was conducted according to a method that was comparable to OECD 202 and the preferred species, Daphnia, were used. The reliability rating for this study is 2, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as this is a peer reviewed paper using methodology similar to recognised methods, however no purity or GLP data was presented. This study is considered the most relevant and reliable study for this endpoint, however all of the following supporting studies correlate with this key study and the values are all <1 mg/L which is the cut-off value used for classification purposes for this endpoint.

 

In the Bushong et al (1987) paper, Chesapeake Bay invertebrate species were exposed to a range of test material concentrations using continuous-flow conditions. Test material measurements were reported in the test chambers every 24 h; test solutions were generally within 10 - 15 % of the predicted concentrations. Estuarine copepods were very sensitive; Eurytemora affinis (72 h LC50 = 0.5 µg/L) and Acartia tonsa (48 h LC50 = 1.1µg/L). Environmental concentrations of the test material exceeding the acutely toxic values reported for both copepod species have been reported from marinas in northern Chesapeake Bay. A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as there was limited information on test material and no information on GLP however methodology is well documented. Also a non-standard invertebrate species was used.

 

In the Bushong et al (1988) paper, acute toxicity experiments were conducted on selected Chesapeake Bay biota. Four invertebrate species were evaluated. Tests were conducted using continuous-flow conditions and test material concentrations were measured every 24 h in test containers. Test solutions were generally within 10-15 % of the predicted concentrations. The most sensitive invertebrates tested were the two estuarine copepods, E. affinis (72 h LC50 = 0.6 µg/L) and A. tonsa (48 h LC50 = 1.1 µg/L) and the young Gammarus (96 h LC50 = 1.3 µg/L). Palaemonetes, in contrast, was very resistant with only 40 % mortality after 96 h at 31 µg/L. Young Gamnrarus were 2-4 times more sensitive to the test material than adults. A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as there was limited information on test material and no information on GLP however methodology is well documented. Also a non-standard invertebrate species was used.

 

In the Goodman et al (1988) paper, the test material was exposed to Mysids. The test material was acutely toxic to all three age groups of mysids at the concentrations tested, with 96 h LC50 values of 1.1 µg/L for 1 day old mysids, 2.0 µg/L for 5 day old mysids and 2.2 µg/L for 10 day old animals. Although the LC50 value for 1 day old mysids is approximately 1/2 that for the two older groups, the confidence bounds overlap. A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as there was limited information on test material and no information on GLP however methodology is well documented. Also a non-standard invertebrate species was used.

 

In the Crisinel et al (1994) paper, both 24 h and 48 h immobilization tests were performed (ISO 6341 procedure, 1989). The tests were conducted at 20 ± 1 °C, with a photoperiod of 16 h light/8 h darkness. ISO medium was used as dilution water. The larvae were not fed during toxicant exposure. The test end point was immobilisation, defined by swimming incapacity during 15 s following the agitation of each test tube. The 24 h and 48 h EC50's for Daphnia Magna exposed to the test material were 0.028 and 0.018 mg/L, respectively. A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as there was no information on test type and Daphnia larvae were used in this study as well as other non-standard species in Cyst-Based Ecotoxicological Tests.

 

In the Francisco Sánchez-Bayo (2006) paper, data were compiled on the acute toxicity of 468 pollutants to planktonic crustaceans from the AQUIRE (USEPA 2003) and Pesticide Manual (Tomlin 2002) datasets. The LC50 values for Cladocera Anostraca and Copepoda exposure to tetrabutyltin are reported as 10, 58 and 0.6 µg/L respectively. A reliability rating of 4 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as the information is from a secondary source.

 

- In the Kungolos et al (2004) paper, the toxicity tests on D. magna were carried out using a commercial toxicity test. Neonates were exposed to the test material for 24 hours and the EC50 on D. Magna was determined to be 0.00095 mg/L. A reliability rating of 4 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as the study was only conducted for 24h, therefore information not sufficient for classification and labelling.

 

In the Meador (1986) paper, Daphnia magna adults were exposed to various concentrations of the test material in order to elucidate alterations in photobehaviour and to determine the LC50. The estimated 96 h LC50 for Daphnia magna under this testing regime is 5.9 ppb. The 95 % confidence interval for this value is 3.7 < LC50 < 9.4 ppb. A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as there was limited information on test material and no information on GLP however methodology is well documented.

 

In the Bao et al (1997) paper, acute toxicity tests were performed on D. magna according to the method described by Weber (1991). The results indicate that DHM-toxicant interactions can alter the toxicity of organotin compounds and the extent of alteration was dependent on the source of DHM and the concentration of DHM. In the present study, peat HA had a much greater influence on the toxicity of the test material, followed by soil HA. River sediment HA and FA, and soil FA had no significant effect on the toxicity of the test material to D. magna. A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 due to the following deviations: No method specified, however they are well documented. Not required number of animals used. The test material looks to have been dissolved in acetone to make the solutions used. Study unlikely to have been conducted to GLP. No analytical monitoring performed.

 

In the Kungolos et al (2001) paper, neonatal daphnia magna were exposure to the test material for 24 hours in an acute toxicity experiment. An animal was considered to be dead, if it could not move its antennae after slight agitation of the water. Tributyltin chloride had an LC50 value equal to 0.00095 mg/L. A reliability rating of 4 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as the study was only conducted for 24 h, therefore information not sufficient for classification and labelling.

 

In the Vighi and Calamari (1985) paper, toxicity tests were performed on Daphnia magna according to the Acute Immobilisation Test proposed by the OECD (1981). Young specimens, less than 24 h old, were put into testing vessels (20 animals, five for each tank) and the mortality recorded after 24 h. The 24 EC50 value for daphnia magna exposed to the test material was 0.013 mg/L. A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as the study was only conducted for 24 h, therefore information not sufficient for classification and labelling, there was no GLP data and limited information on test material.