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Environmental fate & pathways

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

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There are several supporting studies available for this endpoint:

In the Fioroni et al (1991) paper, L. littorea was found to accumulate TBT in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. No differences in accumulation rates were noted for juvenile or adult snails. For TBT concentrations in both sediments and water, statistically significant hyperbolic relationships were established. TBT was also fount to induce malformations in male specimens of L. littorea causing restrictions in reproductive capability. The reduction of the number of mamilliform penial glands showed a highly significant positive correlation with TBT concentrations in male tissue, in all analyses. However, it must be noted when drawing conclusions that the number of penial glands is influenced by the male reproductive cycle and therefore exhibits seasonal variations.

A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as although this is a non-standard study with no information on GLP the methods are well documented.

 

In the Fent & Looser (1995) paper, the influence of pH and humic acids on bioaccumulation and bioavailability of tributyltin chloride (TBT) was studied in Daphnia. Bioaccumulation followed a first-order uptake process, and metabolism of TBT was slow. Bioconcentration factor in Daphnia was 198. Uptake rates and bioaccumulation of TBT in Daphnia were significantly higher at pH 8.0, where TBT predominates as neutral TBTOH species than at pH 6.0, where it predominates as cation. Humic acids led to a decrease in TBT bioaccumulation at ≥ 1.8 mg.l-1dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Daphnia. Bioaccumulation of TBT decreased with increasing concentrations of humic acids.

A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as although this is a non-standard study with no information on GLP the methods are well documented.

 

In the Fent & Looser (1995) paper, the influence of pH and humic acids on bioaccumulation and bioavailability of tributyltin chloride (TBT) was studied in yolk sac larvae of fish Thymallus thymallus. Bioaccumulation followed a first-order uptake process, and metabolism of TBT was slow. Bioconcentration factors in Thymallus was 2015. Humic acids led to a decrease in TBT bioaccumulation at ≥ 4.0 mg.l-1DOC in Thymallus larvae. Bioaccumulation of TBT decreased with increasing concentrations of humic acids.

A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as although this is a non-standard study with no information on GLP the methods are well documented.

 

In the Guolan & Yong (1995) paper, marine bivalve mussels Mytidus edulis and Aequipecten irradians were used in a chronic (60 days) bioaccumulation study were conducted to evaluate the effect of tributyltin (TBT). TBT and its degraded products-Dibutyltin and Monobutyltin-were determined in mussels and seawater. Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) increased exponentially with decreasing concentration of TBT, BCFs were much higher than predicted values by Pow. Some physiological effects of TBT on the shell length, width, whole body weight and Condition Index were measured and used as indicating indices on the contamination of TBT to bivalve mussels. Some pathological effects at cellular level were observed under the electron-microscope, the mitochondria of test M. edulis's liver swelled and disrupted, this was suggested to be the mechanism of toxicity. The results of bioaccumulation of TBT by algae revealed that accumulation through the food chain was very important.

A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as although this is a non-standard study with no information on GLP the methods are well documented.

 

In the Huang et al (1993) paper, the study reported the toxic effects of organotin species on algae. Two species of microalgae were studied, Scenedesmus obliquus (freshwater algae), and Dunaliella saliva and Dunaliella viridis, (mixed algae which exist abundantly in Tianjin Harbor, People's Republic of China), as a comparison, Chlorella vulgaris was also included. The BCF of the marine mixed algae was > 3.48 x 105. The marine microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, was adaptable to TBT at lower concentration. TBT at high concentration only inhibited the growth of S. obliquus, but it could cause chlorosis and disintegration of D. salina and D. viridis. Resistance to toxicity of algae against TBT appears in order as follows: C. vulgaris > S. obliquus >D. sauna and D. viridis.

A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as although this is a non-standard study with no information on GLP the methods are well documented.

 

In the Tsuda et al (1986) paper, bioconcentration factors (BCF) in round crucian carp and partition coefficients between n-octanol and water (Pow) were measured for tributyltin chloride. The Pow was 2.07 ± 0.014 was determined to be. BCF of tributyltin chloride was reported as 2.56 for muscle, 2.53 for vertebra, 3.53 for liver and 3.38 for kidney (log BCF).

A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as the methods look simialr to OECD 305.

 

In the Tsuda et al (1990) paper, the order of the bioconcentration factors (BCF) in carp at three pH values was pH 7.8 > pH 6.8 > pH 6.0 for Bu3SnCl over the 14 days exposure period. There were significant differences (P <0.05- P<0.001) in the BCF values of Bu3SnCl between the pH values at 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days. Partition coefficients between n-octanol and water (Pow) of Bu3SnCl increased with increasing pH (pH 5.8-8.0). The increase in the BCF values of Bu3SnCl with increasing pH is probably due to the change of the chemical forms (Bu3Sn+to Bu3SnOH).

A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as the methods look simialr to OECD 305.

 

In the Tsuda et al (1990) paper, differences between freshwater and seawater-acclimated guppies (Lebistes reticulates) in the accumulation and excretion of tri-n-butyltin chloride (Bu3SnCl) were studied. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Bu3SnCl reached a plateau after 7 days of exposure, in both types of fish. The BCF value of Bu3SnCl (460) in the freshwater fish was roughly twice as high as that (240) in the seawater-acclimated fish.

A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as the methods look simialr to OECD 305.

 

In the Tsuda et al (1991) paper, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of tributyltin chloride via gill intake in goldfish reached plateaux after 21 days of exposure. The average BCF value of Bu3SnCl was 1976 after 21-28 days of exposure. The BCF values by oral intake of goldfish reached plateaux after 28 days for Bu3SnCl. The BCF value was 0.04 after 35 days. The order of the BCF values via gill intake was reversed compared with that by oral intake.

A reliability rating of 4 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as the method does not follow recognised guidelines and there is no GLP information.

 

In the Van Slooten & Tarradellas (1994) paper, the uptake of tributyltin (TBT) in caged Dreissena polymorpha was investigated in a freshwater marina contaminated with TBT released from antifouling paints. Depuration was followed on bivalves transferred from the marina, where they live naturally, to a location without organotin contamination. The butyltin concentration of the mussel tissues and the water was determined and the growth of the mollusks followed during 105 d. The accumulation was extremely rapid, reaching a threshold of 63 µg/g dry after 35 d with a very high BCF of ~900,000. No effect on growth or mortality was observed. The BCF for TBT was 947,485 or 902,135, according to the method of calculation (ku/kdor Ct/Cw, respectively).

A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997 as although this is a non-standard study with no information on GLP the methods are well documented.