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Short term toxicity to fish:

Study was conducted to access the effect of test chemical1-phenylethan-1-olon the growth of fish Danio rerio. Test conducted according to OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test).The test substance was soluble in water. Therefore, the test solution was prepared by dissolving 1ml of the test substance in 10 liters of potable water (passed through reverse osmosis system) with continuous stirring for achieving test concentrations of 100 mg/L, respectivelyand Zebra FishDanio reriowere exposed to these concentration for 96 hours.Bowl aquaria containing 2 liters of potable water (passed through reverse osmosis system) were loaded with 8 fishes. A static procedure was used for the study and it was conducted in compliance with the OECD guideline 203. After 96 hours of exposure to test item1-phenylethan-1-olto various nominal test concentrations, LC50 was determine to be >100 mg/l . Based on the LC50, it can be consider that the chemical was1-phenylethan-1-oland can be consider to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Long term toxicity to fish:

Based on the prediction done using ECOSAR version 1.1, the long term toxicity on fish was predicted for test substance . On the basis of effects observed in a static freshwater system, the NOEC value for the substance1-phenylethan-1 ol(98 -85 -1)is estimated to be 26.481 mg/l for fish for 28 days of exposure duration.Since, the test substance is readily biodegradable , it can be concluded that the test chemical1-phenylethan-1 ol(98 -85 -1)can be considered as non-toxic to fish at environmentally relevant concentrations and can be considered not-classified as per the CLP classification criteria. 

Short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates:

Aim of this study was to assess the short term toxicity of1-phenylethan-1 olto aquatic invertebrates daphnia magna. Study was performed according to the OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test) in a static system for the total exposure period of 48 hrs.The solution of colourless liquid of purity 99.62% 100  mg/l was prepaired by dissolving the substance into reconstitued test water.. 100 mg/l nominal concentrations were used in the study. Effects on immobilisation were observed for 48 hours. With the test substance one positive control Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was also run simultaneously. After the exposure of chemical, effect concentration EC50 was calculated using nonlinear regression by the software Prism 4.0.

  The inhibition perccentage [%] for the test substance1-phenylethan-1 ol, in Daphnia magna was determined to be 4.0% on the basis of mobility inhibition effects in a 48 hour study.24 out of 25 daphnids were observed to be mobile in the sample. Based on the [I%] value, indicates that the substance is likely to be non-hazardous to aquatic invertebrates and cannot as per the CLP criteria.

Long term toxicity to aquatic invertebrate:

Based on the prediction done using ECOSAR version 1.1, the long term toxicity on aquatic invertebrate was predicted for test substance . On the basis of effects observed in a static freshwater system, the NOEC value for the substance 1-phenylethan-1 ol(98 -85 -1) is estimated to be 13.280 mg/l for aquatic invertebrate for 21 days of exposure duration.Since, the test substance is readily biodegradable , it can be concluded that the test chemical 1-phenylethan-1 ol(98 -85 -1) can be considered as non-toxic to aquatic invertebrate at environmentally relevant concentrations and can be considered not-classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria:

The study was designed to assess the toxic effects of the test compound1-phenylethanol(CAS No. 98-85-1)o n the green alga Chlorella vulgaris. Test was conducted in compliance with the OECD guideline 201 (Alga, Growth Inhibition Test). Test was carried out in 100mL conical flasks which were carefully autoclaved and sterilized. The test solution in each of these test vessels was kept constant which is 60 ml so that a sufficient amount of head space was left. The test substance1-phenylethan-1 olwas prepared by adding 50 mg of test item in 250 ml of BBM to get the final concentration of 200mg/L. This stock solution was kept for stirring/ sonication for 0 minutes to obtain a homogenous solution for the experiment. The test concentrations6.25 mg/l, 12.5 mg/l, 25 mg/l, 50 mg/l, 100 mg/l and 200mg/lwere chosen according to the available data of the test item. The concentrations chosen were set up to the water solubility limit. The remaining test solutions were prepared by dilution from the above stock solution.

For the assessment of algal growth, the test was conducted in replicates. The control flask was maintained in triplicates as recommended in the OECD guideline and the test concentration were selected in geometric series which were maintained in duplicates. To obtain a quantitative concentration-response relationship by regression analysis, a linearizing transformation of the response data into probit was performed. Using the same, effective concentration (EC) were determined. Algal growth was calculated daily by counting the cells microscopically with the help of haemocytometer. For microscopic observations the cultures were observed daily with the help of a microscope to verify a normal and healthy appearance of the algal culture and also to observe any abnormal appearance of the algae (as may be caused by the exposure of the test item). Apart from this, the cell count of each test vessel was also noted with the help of a microscope and haemocytometer. By spectrophotometer the absorbance values of each test vessel and control vessel was noted at 680nm.The BBM was taken as blank for both control and test vessels. The absorbance value of each vessel was in line with the average specific growth rate. As per OECD 201, the biomass in the control cultures should have increased exponentially by a factor of at least 16 within the 72 hr test period. This corresponds to a specific growth rate of 0.92 per day. Thus, the observed specific growth rate in the control cultures during the experiment was 0.358 per day. Secondly the mean coefficient of variation for section by section specific growth rates (days 0-1, 1-2 & 2-3, for 72 hr tests) in the control cultures must not exceed 35%. Thus, the observed mean coefficient of variation in the control cultures during the experiment was 33.42%. Thirdly the coefficient of variation of average specific growth rates during the whole test period in replicate control cultures must not exceed 10%. Thus, the observed coefficient of variation of average specific growth rates during the experiment in control cultures was 8.26%. Hence, the test is considered valid as per OECD guideline, 201. After 72 hours of exposure to test item1-phenylethan-1 olto various nominal test concentrations, EC50 was determine to be >200 mg/l graphically and through probit analysis. Based on the EC50, it can be concluded that the chemical was not toxic and can be consider to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Toxicity to microorganism:

Data available for the structurally and functionally similar read across chemicals benzenemethanol and benzoic acid

has been reviewed to determine the short term toxicity of fish of the test chemical 1-phenylethan-1 ol (98 -85 -1).The studies are as mentioned below:

1.The minimum inhibition concentration of test material benzenemethanol was evaluated for its toxicity on Staph. Aureus , E.coli , C.albicans .

Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, obtained from Monmouth Medical Center, Long Branch, New Jersey. Stock cultures were maintained on agar slants composed of tryptone , 0.3%; yeast extract, 0.3%; glucose, 0.9 K2HPO 4, 0.1%, and agar, 1% (referred to as TGY agar). Test chemicals were tested initially at 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg/l to determine the approximate range of activity. When no positive materials were found, these were repeated at 10, I00, and 1000 mg/l.18 x 150 mm tubes; 10.0 ml/tube was used as a test vessel .Test materials was added to the tubes as 10% (w/v) solutions. Tubes were inoculated with 50/ml of a 1 : 10 dilution in sterile 0.85% saline of a 24-hour shake culture (TGY broth). A minimum of 300,000 viable organisms were added to each tube. Tubes were mixed incubated at 37°C for 18 to 24 hr, sufficient time to obtain significant turbidity. on a Vortex mixer and incubated at 37°C for 18 to 24 hr, sufficient time to obtain significant turbidity.The minimum inhibition concentration of test chemical Benzenemethanol on Staph. Aureus , E.coli , C.albicans was observed to be >1000 mg/l

 

2.Test material benzoic acid was used as a test material to evaluate toxicity to microorganisms as per OECD guideline 209.Activated sludge was used as the test culture at pH 7.5 for 3 hr.The EC50 value on the basis of respiration inhibition test was observed to be >1000 mg/l.

Additional information

Short term toxicity to fish:

Data from experimental study as well as from peer reviewed journals were used to evaluate the short term toxicity to fish for the test chemical 1-phenylethan -1-olon.

Study was conducted to access the effect of test chemical1-phenylethan-1-olon the growth of fish Danio rerio. Test conducted according to OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test).The test substance was soluble in water. Therefore, the test solution was prepared by dissolving 1ml of the test substance in 10 liters of potable water (passed through reverse osmosis system) with continuous stirring for achieving test concentrations of 100 mg/L, respectivelyand Zebra FishDanio reriowere exposed to these concentration for 96 hours.Bowl aquaria containing 2 liters of potable water (passed through reverse osmosis system) were loaded with 8 fishes. A static procedure was used for the study and it was conducted in compliance with the OECD guideline 203. After 96 hours of exposure to test item1-phenylethan-1-olto various nominal test concentrations, LC50 was determine to be >100 mg/l . Based on the LC50, it can be consider that the chemical was1-phenylethan-1-oland can be consider to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

The above experimental study was supported by experimental study summarized in peer reviewed journal for the test chemical.

Short term toxicity of test study was conducted according to the OECD 203 method under static conditions for the test material 1-phenylethanol.The median lethal concentration of test material 1-phenylethanol on Zebra fish after 96 h was observed to be 100 mg/l.

Based on the above effect concentartion it can be considered that test material 1-phenylethan-1-ol was not toxic to fish and can be considered as not classified as per CLP criteria.

Long term toxicity to fish:

Based on the prediction done using ECOSAR version 1.1, the long term toxicity on fish was predicted for test substance . On the basis of effects observed in a static freshwater system, the NOEC value for the substance1-phenylethan-1 ol(98 -85 -1)is estimated to be 26.481 mg/l for fish for 28 days of exposure duration.Since, the test substance is readily biodegradable , it can be concluded that the test chemical1-phenylethan-1 ol(98 -85 -1)can be considered as non-toxic to fish at environmentally relevant concentrations and can be considered not-classified as per the CLP classification criteria. 

Short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates:

Aim of this study was to assess the short term toxicity of1-phenylethan-1 olto aquatic invertebrates daphnia magna. Study was performed according to the OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test) in a static system for the total exposure period of 48 hrs.The solution of colourless liquid of purity 99.62% 100  mg/l was prepaired by dissolving the substance into reconstitued test water.. 100 mg/l nominal concentrations were used in the study. Effects on immobilisation were observed for 48 hours. With the test substance one positive control Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was also run simultaneously. After the exposure of chemical, effect concentration EC50 was calculated using nonlinear regression by the software Prism 4.0.

  The inhibition perccentage [%] for the test substance1-phenylethan-1 ol, in Daphnia magna was determined to be 4.0% on the basis of mobility inhibition effects in a 48 hour study.24 out of 25 daphnids were observed to be mobile in the sample. Based on the [I%] value, indicates that the substance is likely to be non-hazardous to aquatic invertebrates and cannot as per the CLP criteria.

Long term toxicity to aquatic invertebrate:

Based on the prediction done using ECOSAR version 1.1, the long term toxicity on aquatic invertebrate was predicted for test substance . On the basis of effects observed in a static freshwater system, the NOEC value for the substance 1-phenylethan-1 ol(98 -85 -1) is estimated to be 13.280 mg/l for aquatic invertebrate for 21 days of exposure duration.Since, the test substance is readily biodegradable , it can be concluded that the test chemical 1-phenylethan-1 ol(98 -85 -1) can be considered as non-toxic to aquatic invertebrate at environmentally relevant concentrations and can be considered not-classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria:

The toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria was summarized using two experimental studies and data from peer reviewed journal.

The study was designed to assess the toxic effects of the test compound 1-phenylethanol on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris. Test was conducted in compliance with the OECD guideline 201 (Alga, Growth Inhibition Test). Test was carried out in 100mL conical flasks which were carefully autoclaved and sterilized. The test solution in each of these test vessels was kept constant which is 60 ml so that a sufficient amount of head space was left. The test substance 1-phenylethan-1 ol was prepared by adding 50 mg of test item in 250 ml of BBM to get the final concentration of 200mg/L. This stock solution was kept for stirring/ sonication for 0 minutes to obtain a homogenous solution for the experiment. The test concentrations 6.25 mg/l, 12.5 mg/l, 25 mg/l, 50 mg/l, 100 mg/l and 200mg/l were chosen according to the available data of the test item. The concentrations chosen were set up to the water solubility limit. The remaining test solutions were prepared by dilution from the above stock solution. For the assessment of algal growth, the test was conducted in replicates. The control flask was maintained in triplicates as recommended in the OECD guideline and the test concentration were selected in geometric series which were maintained in duplicates. To obtain a quantitative concentration-response relationship by regression analysis, a linearizing transformation of the response data into probit was performed. Using the same, effective concentration (EC) were determined. Algal growth was calculated daily by counting the cells microscopically with the help of haemocytometer. For microscopic observations the cultures were observed daily with the help of a microscope to verify a normal and healthy appearance of the algal culture and also to observe any abnormal appearance of the algae (as may be caused by the exposure of the test item). Apart from this, the cell count of each test vessel was also noted with the help of a microscope and haemocytometer. By spectrophotometer the absorbance values of each test vessel and control vessel was noted at 680nm.The BBM was taken as blank for both control and test vessels. The absorbance value of each vessel was in line with the average specific growth rate. As per OECD 201, the biomass in the control cultures should have increased exponentially by a factor of at least 16 within the 72 hr test period. This corresponds to a specific growth rate of 0.92 per day. Thus, the observed specific growth rate in the control cultures during the experiment was 0.358 per day. Secondly the mean coefficient of variation for section by section specific growth rates (days 0-1, 1-2 & 2-3, for 72 hr tests) in the control cultures must not exceed 35%. Thus, the observed mean coefficient of variation in the control cultures during the experiment was 33.42%. Thirdly the coefficient of variation of average specific growth rates during the whole test period in replicate control cultures must not exceed 10%. Thus, the observed coefficient of variation of average specific growth rates during the experiment in control cultures was 8.26%. Hence, the test is considered valid as per OECD guideline, 201. After 72 hours of exposure to test item 1-phenylethan-1 ol to various nominal test concentrations, EC50 was determine to be >200 mg/l graphically and through probit analysis. Based on the EC50, it can be concluded that the chemical was not toxic and can be consider to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Another experimental study was used to support the above data for the test substance. Aim of this study was to evaluate the nature of chemical test chemical when comes in contact with the test organism Desmodesmus subspicatus (previous name: Scenedesmus subspicatus). Test was conducted according to the OECD guideline 201. The stock solution of colourless liquid (purity 99.62 °/o) 100.0 mg/l was prepared by dissolving the substance in OECD growth medium .With the test substance one positive control Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was also run simultaneously. After the exposure of chemical, effect concentration inhibition percentage [%] was calculated using nonlinear regression by the software Prism 4.0. Effect on the growth of algae was determine after an exposure period of 72 hrs. The inhibition percentage[%] for the test substance 1-phenylethan-1 ol , in algae was determined to be 1.5% The avarage growth rate in control was 2.06d-1and the avarage growth rate for the sample was

2.03d-1on the basis of growth rate inhibition effects in a 72 hour study. Based on the [%] value, indicates that the substance is likely to be hazardous to aquatic algae and cannot classified as per the CLP criteria.

Data from reliable peer reviewed journal was summarised to support the above experimental study data. Toxicity of test material 1 -phenylethanol was evaluated for aquatic algae and cyanobacteria. Test conducted as per the OECD guideline 201 . The EC50 value based on the growth inhibition after 72 h was observed to be >200 mg/l. Based on the above effect concentration it can be considered that test material was not toxic for aquatic algae and cyanobacteria and can not be classified as per CLP criteria.

Toxicity to microorganism:

Data available for the structurally and functionally similar read across chemicals benzenemethanol and benzoic acid

has been reviewed to determine the short term toxicity of fish of the test chemical 1-phenylethan-1 ol (98 -85 -1).The studies are as mentioned below:

1.The minimum inhibition concentration of test material benzenemethanol was evaluated for its toxicity on Staph. Aureus , E.coli , C.albicans .

Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, obtained from Monmouth Medical Center, Long Branch, New Jersey. Stock cultures were maintained on agar slants composed of tryptone , 0.3%; yeast extract, 0.3%; glucose, 0.9 K2HPO 4, 0.1%, and agar, 1% (referred to as TGY agar). Test chemicals were tested initially at 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg/l to determine the approximate range of activity. When no positive materials were found, these were repeated at 10, I00, and 1000 mg/l.18 x 150 mm tubes; 10.0 ml/tube was used as a test vessel .Test materials was added to the tubes as 10% (w/v) solutions. Tubes were inoculated with 50/ml of a 1 : 10 dilution in sterile 0.85% saline of a 24-hour shake culture (TGY broth). A minimum of 300,000 viable organisms were added to each tube. Tubes were mixed incubated at 37°C for 18 to 24 hr, sufficient time to obtain significant turbidity. on a Vortex mixer and incubated at 37°C for 18 to 24 hr, sufficient time to obtain significant turbidity.The minimum inhibition concentration of test chemical Benzenemethanol on Staph. Aureus , E.coli , C.albicans was observed to be >1000 mg/l

 

2.Test material benzoic acid was used as a test material to evaluate toxicity to microorganisms as per OECD guideline 209.Activated sludge was used as the test culture at pH 7.5 for 3 hr.The EC50 value on the basis of respiration inhibition test was observed to be >1000 mg/l.