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Key value for chemical safety assessment

Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

Prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (499-80-9). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro. Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is from OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.4 and the supporting QMRF report has been attached
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As mention below
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.4, 2017
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material : pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid
- Molecular formula : C7H5NO4
- Molecular weight : 167.12 g/mol
- Smiles notation : c1(cc(ncc1)C(O)=O)C(O)=O
- InChl : 1S/C7H5NO4/c9-6(10)4-1-2-8-5(3-4)7(11)12/h1-3H,(H,9,10)(H,11,12)
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Solid
Target gene:
Histidine
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
Not applicable.
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Cytokinesis block (if used):
not specified
Metabolic activation:
with
Metabolic activation system:
S9 metabolic activation
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
not specified
Vehicle / solvent:
not specified
Untreated negative controls:
not specified
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
not specified
True negative controls:
not specified
Positive controls:
not specified
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
not specified
Rationale for test conditions:
not specified
Evaluation criteria:
Prediction is done considering a dose dependent increase in the number of revrtants/plate
Statistics:
not specified
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium, other: TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Metabolic activation:
with
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
not specified
Untreated negative controls validity:
not specified
Positive controls validity:
not specified
Additional information on results:
not specified
Remarks on result:
other: No mutagenic effect were observed.

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: "Gene mutation"
Estimation method: Takes highest mode value from the 5 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((((((((((((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" )  and ("e" and ( not "f") )  )  and ("g" and ( not "h") )  )  and ("i" and ( not "j") )  )  and ("k" and ( not "l") )  )  and ("m" and ( not "n") )  )  and "o" )  and ("p" and ( not "q") )  )  and ("r" and ( not "s") )  )  and ("t" and ( not "u") )  )  and "v" )  and "w" )  and ("x" and ( not "y") )  )  and ("z" and ( not "aa") )  )  and "ab" )  and "ac" )  and ("ad" and "ae" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic compound OR Carbonic acid derivative by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acid, aromatic attach [-COOH] OR Alcohol, olefinic attach [-OH] OR Aromatic Carbon [C] OR Aromatic Nitrogen OR Carbonyl, olefinic attach [-C(=O)-] OR Carbonyl, one aromatic attach [-C(=O)-] OR Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) OR Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] OR Pyridine, non fused rings  by Organic functional groups (US EPA) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aryl OR Carboxylic acid OR Overlapping groups OR Pyridine/ Pyridinium ion by Organic Functional groups (nested) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aryl OR Carboxylic acid OR Pyridine/ Pyridinium ion by Organic Functional groups ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.4

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinone methides OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR AN2 >> Michael-type conjugate addition to activated alkene derivatives OR AN2 >> Michael-type conjugate addition to activated alkene derivatives >> Alpha-Beta Conjugated Alkene Derivatives with Geminal Electron-Withdrawing Groups OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition reaction with cycloisomerization OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition reaction with cycloisomerization >> Hydrazine Derivatives OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition to alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition to alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds >> Alpha, Beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation >> Alpha, Beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes OR Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Aminoacridine DNA Intercalators OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Naphthalenediimide Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR Radical OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Conjugated Nitro Compounds OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Hydrazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> N-Hydroxylamines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion >> Quinone methides OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Naphthalenediimide Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> Acyclic Triazenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> N-Nitroso Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrosonium cation formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrosonium cation formation >> N-Nitroso Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Conjugated Nitro Compounds OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Acylation OR SN2 >> Acylation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related >> Epoxides and Aziridines OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Naphthalenediimide Derivatives OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> Direct nucleophilic attack on diazonium cation OR SN2 >> Direct nucleophilic attack on diazonium cation >> Hydrazine Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom >> Quinoline Derivatives by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.4

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates >> Formamides OR Michael addition OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Arenes OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Polycyclic (PAHs) and heterocyclic (HACs) aromatic hydrocarbons-Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition >> Alpha, beta- unsaturated amides OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition >> Alpha, beta- unsaturated esters OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition >> Alpha, beta- unsaturated ketones OR Schiff base formers OR Schiff base formers >> Direct Acting Schiff Base Formers OR Schiff base formers >> Direct Acting Schiff Base Formers >> Alpha-beta-dicarbonyl OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation >> Polycyclic (PAHs) and heterocyclic (HACs) aromatic hydrocarbons-SN1 OR SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation OR SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation >> Aliphatic tertiary amines OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Aromatic azo OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Primary aromatic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Tertiary aromatic amine by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, without OH or NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, impaired OH or NH2 group OR Non binder, MW>500 OR Non binder, non cyclic structure by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group >> Acetates OR Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes >> Polarised alkene - cyano OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes >> Polarised alkene - esters OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes >> Polarised alkene - ketones OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes >> Polarised alkene - pyridines OR Michael addition >> Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals OR Michael addition >> Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Quinone-imine OR SN2 OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a sulphur atom OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a sulphur atom >> Isothiazol-3-ones (sulphur) OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> Allyl acetates and related chemicals by Protein binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by in vitro mutagenicity (Ames test) alerts by ISS

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes OR Aromatic ring N-oxide OR Heterocyclic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons OR Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by in vitro mutagenicity (Ames test) alerts by ISS

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Bioavailable by Lipinski Rule Oasis ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Group 14 - Carbon C AND Group 15 - Nitrogen N AND Group 16 - Oxygen O by Chemical elements

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Group 1 - Alkali Earth Li,Na,K,Rb,Cs,Fr OR Group 14 - Metals Sn,Pb OR Group 16 - Sulfur S OR Group 17 - Halogens Cl OR Group 17 - Halogens F,Cl,Br,I,At OR Group 6 - Trans.Metals Cr,Mo,W OR Group 9 - Trans.Metals Co,Rh,Ir by Chemical elements

Domain logical expression index: "r"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Not categorized by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "s"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as 3-Methylcholantrene (Hepatotoxicity) Alert OR Amineptine (Hepatotoxicity) Alert OR Aromatic hydrocarbons (Liver enzyme induction) Rank C OR Phthalate esters (Testicular toxicity) Rank C OR Tamoxifen (Hepatotoxicity) Alert by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "t"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Stable form by Tautomers unstable

Domain logical expression index: "u"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Imidol form by Tautomers unstable

Domain logical expression index: "v"

Similarity boundary:Target: OC(=O)c1ccnc(C(O)=O)c1
Threshold=30%,
Dice(Atom centered fragments)
Atom type; Count H attached; Hybridization

Domain logical expression index: "w"

Similarity boundary:Target: OC(=O)c1ccnc(C(O)=O)c1
Threshold=10%,
Dice(Atom centered fragments)
Atom type; Count H attached; Hybridization

Domain logical expression index: "x"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as (!Undefined)Group All Lipid Solubility < 0.01 g/kg AND (!Undefined)Group CN Lipid Solubility < 0.4 g/kg AND Group All Melting Point > 200 C AND Group CN Melting Point > 180 C AND Group CN Vapour Pressure < 0.001 Pa by Skin irritation/corrosion Exclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "y"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as (!Undefined)Group C Surface Tension > 62 mN/m OR Group C Melting Point > 55 C OR Group C Vapour Pressure < 0.0001 Pa by Skin irritation/corrosion Exclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "z"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as H-acceptor-path3-H-acceptor by in vivo mutagenicity (Micronucleus) alerts by ISS

Domain logical expression index: "aa"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by in vivo mutagenicity (Micronucleus) alerts by ISS

Domain logical expression index: "ab"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Very fast by Bioaccumulation - metabolism half-lives ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "ac"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as High (Class III) by Toxic hazard classification by Cramer (extension) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "ad"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= 0.46

Domain logical expression index: "ae"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 0.69

Conclusions:
Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (499-80-9) was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.
Executive summary:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (499-80-9). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with S9 metabolic activation system. Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro. Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Genetic mutation in vitro:

Prediction model based estimation and data from read across chemical have been reviewed to determine the mutagenic nature of Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (499-80-9). The studies are as mentioned below

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (499-80-9). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro. Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, chromosomal aberration was predicted for Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (499-80-9).The study assumed the use of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line with and without S9 metabolic activation system Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid was predicted to not induce chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro. Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

In a study for structurally and functionally similar read across chemical, Gene mutation toxicity study was performed by T.B. Adams et al.( Food and Chemical Toxicology,2002) to determine the mutagenic nature of Pyrazine(230-37-9). The read across substances share high similarity in structure and log kow .Therefore, it is acceptable to derive information on mutation from the analogue substance. Mutagenic effect of Pyrazine(230-37-9) was studied in Salmonella typhimurium. Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA102 were involved in mutagenic assay. Mutagenic assay performed with and without metabolic activation i.e. S9 mix. Test substance in concentration 0.64-64000 µg/plate was tested for mutagenicity. Test substance did not induce mutation in bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. Therefore Pyrazine was considered to be non mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains: TA98, TA100, TA102. Hence it is not likely to be classified as genetox in vitro.

In a study for structurally and functionally similar read across chemical, Gene mutation toxicity study was performed by H. E. Seifried et al.( Chem. Res. Toxicol, 2006) to determine the mutagenic nature of 2-acetylpyridine(1122-62-9). The read across substances share high similarity in structure and log kow .Therefore, it is acceptable to derive information on mutation from the analogue substance. Ames mutagenicity test was conducted for 2-acetylpyridine to evaluate its genetoxic effects when exposed to Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and TA1538 with dose concentration of 100-10000 µg/plate in plate incorporation assay. Based on the preliminary study conducted, the test compound was used at a five dose level from 100-10000 µg/plate. The plates were incubated for 48 h at 37±2 °C. Five doses of test chemical, together with the appropriate concurrent solvent and positive controls, were tested in triplicate on each tester strain without metabolic activation and also with activation by induced rat and hamster liver S9 preparations. For a test article to be considered positive, it had to induce at least a doubling (TA98, TA100, and TA1535) in the mean number of revertants per plate of at least one tester strain. This increase in the mean revertants per plate had to be accompanied by a dose response to increasing concentrations of the test chemical. 2-acetylpyridine did not induce gene mutation in the Salmonella typhiriumTA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and TA1538 both in the presence and absence of S9 activation system and hence the chemical is not likely to be a gene mutant.

 

Based on the data available for the target chemical and its read across substance and applying weight of evidence Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (499-80-9) does not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the above annotation and CLP criteria for the target chemical Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (499-80-9) does not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.