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EC number: 244-168-5 | CAS number: 21041-95-2
Effects on fertility and sex organs have been noted in experimental studies at high doses of cadmium which generally caused other manifestations of toxicity (e.g. changes in body or organ weights and/or lethality). The lowest NOAELs correspond to 1 mg Cd/kg bw/d via the oral route and ca. 0.09 mg Cd/m3 after inhalatory exposure. Only a few publications on the effects on human fertility were found. Overall, epidemiological evidence does not speak for an association between exposure to cadmium and relevant effects on fertility or sex organs.
Oral routeCadmium compounds have been reported to induce reduced bodyweight and malformations (primarily of the skeleton) in offspring of animals exposed via gavage or diet at doses that produced maternal toxicity. In some studies, information on maternal toxicity is lacking, but cross-reading with studies that provide this information indicates that the reported developmental effects occur at doses levels expected to cause maternal toxicity (overall > 5 ppm or ca. 0.6 mg CdCl2/kg bw/d) ( Sorell and Graziano, 1990; Baranski, 1985; ECB, 2007). Neurobehavioral effects or changes in electrophysiological parameters were reported to occur at doses that did not induce maternal toxicity. The lowest dose reported to generate behavioural changes in pups was 0.04 mg Cd/kg bw/day (LOAEL) (Baranski et al., 1983). The significance of these changes and underlying mechanisms for the observed effects on behavioural endpoints are not completely elucidated yet; some authors suggested that the toxic effects might be mediated by placental toxicity or by interference with the normal foetal metabolism of zinc and/or copper. Several other mechanisms of action (e.g. neurotransporters or ions channels) were suggested to explain the neurobehavioral changes in the pups of exposed dams. There is a need for further studies to better describe the effects of cadmium on the developing brain.Inhalation routeDecreased foetal weight and a significant increase in retarded ossification frequency were reported in offsprings of rats and mice exposed to CdO by inhalation at levels that produced maternal toxicity (0.5 and 2 mg CdO/m3 in mouse and rat, respectively) (Dunnick, 1995). Neurobehavioural changes were reported in young rats from dams exposed to CdO (0.02 mg Cd/m3) in a single experiment (Baranski, 1984) but observations should be confirmed in an independent study (ECB, 2007). Taken together, these results indicate a potential for developmental toxicity.
In studies with mouse and rat, effects on development were observed after oral and inhalatory exposure to cadmium compounds. Neurobehavioural changes were reported in the absence of maternal toxicity but the robustness of these observations was not sufficient to derive an appropriate NOAEL. It is suggested that further studies are needed to better document the possible effects of cadmium on the developing brain (ECB, 2007). No clear evidence indicates that cadmium has adverse effects on the development of offprings from women exposed indirectly via the environment or occupationally. Effects on birth weight, motor and perceptual abilities of offsprings have been reported by some authors. However, these studies suffer from drawbacks either in the definition of the study postulation, the definition of the effects, or in the assessment of exposure. Moreover, it is not clear whether the effects on psychomotor development were related to cadmium or to a simultaneous exposure to other substances such as lead. This aspect is not considered to have received enough attention in humans and follow-up with a well designed epidemiology study has been proposed (ECB, 2007).
Water-soluble cadmium chloride and sulphate are currently classified as Repr. Cat. 2; R60-61(May impair fertility, may cause damage to unborn child) in Annex I of Directive 67/548 (the corresponding GHS-CLP classification would beReproduction category 1B; H360). By analogy, a similar classification for cadmium nitrate could be considered.
Slightly soluble cadmium metal and oxide have been granted the classification Repr. Cat. 3; R62-63(Possible risk of impaired fertility, possible harm to unborn child) in Annex I of Directive 67/548 (the corresponding GHS-CLP classification would be Reproduction category 2; H361). Other cadmium compounds in this solubility class (e.g. cadmium hydroxide and carbonate) may warrant this classification as well.
Apart from cadmium sulphide, none of the insoluble cadmium compounds (e.g. cadmium sulfoselenide, cadmium zinc sulphide or cadmium telluride), not expected to penetrate easily into the organisms, are classified for reproductive toxicity. Cadmium sulphide is an exception. As there is no data to support itsRepr. Cat. 3; R62-63classification, a revision of the classification may be appropriate based on solubility properties.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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