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Physical & Chemical properties

Particle size distribution (Granulometry)

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particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2010-06 to 2010-08
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
according to guideline
DIN 55992-1 (Determination of a parameter for the dust formation of pigments and extenders - Part 1: Rotation method)
see "Principles of method if other than guideline"
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The Heubach dust meter is modified in a way that a seven stage cascade impactor is connected to the system. This involves an additional air fed of 20 L/min via the coarse dust separator needed to supply the cascade impactor with 40 L/min air current as specified in the manufacturer’s specificcations.
The calculation report: Grewe, T (2009)
The Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry Model (MPPD, v2.0; CIIT, 2006) was used to predict this fractional deposition behaviour for workers.
The model algorithms calculate the deposition (and clearance) of mono-disperse and polydisperse aerosols in the respiratory tract for particles ranging from ultra-fine (0.01 microns) to coarse (20 microns) sizes. Within each airway, deposition is calculated using theoretically derived efficiencies for deposition by diffusion, sedimentation and impaction within the airway or airway bifurcation. Filtration of aerosols by the head is determined using empirical efficiency functions.
GLP compliance:
Type of method:
rotating drum method
Type of distribution:
volumetric distribution
Mass median aerodynamic diameter:
33.07 µm
Geometric standard deviation:
Remarks on result:
not measured/tested

Dustiness (airborne fraction): total: 69.59 mg/g.

In the original study report by DMT, a calculation of the mass median diameter was not conducted. Since the deposited fractions were provided for each of the cascade impactor stages, it was possible to fit a mono modal lognormal distribution to the data by standard non-linear regression procedure. As a result, the MMAD and GSD are calculable and reported (MMAD = 33.07 µm, GSD = 1.43). As the cascade impactor already takes aerodynamic characteristics of the particles into account, the reported mass median diameter can be interpreted as the mass median aerodynamic diameter.

This figure and the corresponding GSD were used as distribution parameters for the MPPD model enabling an estimation of deposited dust fractions in the human respiratory tract: These fractions were estimated as follows:

Head (ET): 38.8 %

Tracheobronchial (TB): 0.0 %

Pulmonary (PU): 0.0 %

Cobalt chloride hexahydrate

Total Dustiness (airborne fraction): 69.59 mg/g (experimental results, DMT Report).

Mass median aerodynamic diamater of airborne fraction: MMAD = 33.07 µm (distribution fitted to cascade impactor data).
Geometric standard deviation of MMAD: GSD = 1.43

Fractional deposition in human respiratory tract (MPPD model, based on calculated MMAD):
Head (ET): 38.8 %
Tracheobronchial (TB): 0.0 %
Pulmonary (PU): 0.0 %

Description of key information

Total Dustiness (airborne fraction):  69.59 mg/g.

Mass median aerodynamic diameter of airborne fraction: MMAD = 33.07 µm.

Geometric standard deviation of MMAD: GSD = 1.43

Fractional deposition in human respiratory tract (MPPD model, based on calculated MMAD):

Head (ET): 38.8 %

Tracheobronchial (TB): 0.0 %

Pulmonary (PU): 0.0 %

Additional information