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Guidance on Safe Use

Guidance on Safe Use

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First-aid measures

Description of first aid measures
EYE CONTACT: Ensure that contact lenses are removed before rinsing eyes. Separate eyelids, wash the eyes thoroughly with water (15 min). Seek medical attention if irritation persists
INHALATION: Move person to fresh air. Seek medical attention.
SKIN CONTACT: Remove any contaminated clothing. Wash skin with water and soap immediately and rinse thoroughly. Seek medical attention if irritation persists.
INGESTION: Rinse mouth with water. If swallowed, induce vomiting under medical supervision.

Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
Skin or eye contact with material may produce redness, pain. Typical clinical manifestations of lead poisoning include weakness, irritability, asthenia, nausea, abdominal pain with constipation, and anaemia.

Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatments needed
Symptoms of poisoning may occur after several hours; therefore medical observation for at least 48 hours after the accident is recommended.

Fire-fighting measures

The product itself does not burn. Use extinguishing measures that are appropriate to local circumstances and the surrounding environment.

Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
Decomposition products may include oxides.

Advice for fire fighters
Self-contained breathing apparatus with full-face piece.

Accidental release measures

Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Evacuate surrounding areas. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Use personal protective equipment.

Environmental precautions
Avoid dispersal of spilled material and runoff and contact with soil, waterways, drains and sewers. Inform the relevant authorities if the product has caused environmental pollution (sewers, waterways, soil or air). Water polluting material. May be harmful to the environment if released in large quantities.

Methods and materials for containment and clearing up
Move containers from spill area. Prevent entry into sewers, water courses, basements or confined areas. Vacuum or sweep up material and place in a designated, labelled waste container. Dispose of via a licensed waste disposal contractor.

Handling and storage

Precautions for safe handling
Use proper industrial hygiene. Empty containers retain product residue and can be hazardous. Do not reuse container.

Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Store in accordance with local regulations. Store in original container protected from direct sunlight in a dry, cool and well- ventilated area.

Specific end uses(s)
Not applicable. This product is a transported isolated intermediate.

Transport information

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Marine transport (UN RTDG/IMDG)

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Exposure controls / personal protection

Control parameters

OELs - Lead and inorganic compounds (as Pb):

EU 0.15 mg/m³ [under review]
Austria 0.1 mg/m³
Belgium 0.15 mg/m³
Denmark 0.05 mg/m³
Finland 0.1 mg/m³
France 0.1 mg/m³
Germany (AGS) 0.1 mg/m³
Ireland 0.15 mg/m³
Italy 0.15 mg/m³
Latvia 0.005 mg/m³
Poland 0.05 mg/m³
Spain 0.15 mg/m³
Sweden 0.1 mg/m³
Switzerland 0.1 mg/m³
UK 0.15 mg/m³

Biological action levels, inorganic lead:
EU 70 µg/dL (Binding Limit Value) [under review]
Germany 40 µg/dL [under review - TRGS 505 to be updated]
10 µg/dL (for woman, age below 45 years) [Suspended]
France 40 µg/dL
30 µg/dL µg/dL (for woman of reproductive capacity)
Ireland 70 µg/dL
Spain 70 µg/dL
UK 60 µg/dL
30 µg/dL (for woman of reproductive capacity)

DNELs for workers:

Exposure pattern: Long-term - systemic effects
Route: Systemic (μg lead /dL blood)
DNEL: 40 μg/dL - Adult neurological function;
10 μg/dL - Developmental effect on foetus of pregnant women

Ecological toxicity values

The following Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) were used to determine the environmental risk:

Exposure pattern Route Descriptor PNEC
Long-term – chronic effects Freshwater PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) 2.4 μg Pb/L (dissolved)
Long-term – chronic effects Marine PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) 3.3 μg Pb/L (dissolved)
Long-term – chronic effects Freshwater Sediment PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) 186 mg Pb/kg dw1 / 49.7 mg Pb/kg dw2
Long-term – chronic effects Marine Sediment PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) 168 mg Pb/kg dw
Long-term – chronic effects Soil PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) 212 mg Pb/kg dw
Long-term – chronic effects Sewage Treatment Plant PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) 0.1 mg Pb/L
1: without bioavailability correction; 2: with bioavailability correction

Guidance on how to comply with these PNECs is given in the attached Exposure Scenarios.

Exposure controls

Organisational measures

Personal Hygiene: Ensure workers follow simple hygiene rules (e.g. do not bite nails and keep them cut short, avoid touching or scratching face with dirty hands or gloves); Ensure workers do not wipe away sweat with hands or arms; Ensure workers use disposable tissues rather than a handkerchief; Prohibit drinking, eating and smoking in production areas, or access to eating and non-production areas in working clothes; Ensure workers wash hands, arms, faces and mouths (but preferably shower) and change into clean clothing before entering eating areas; For high exposure workplaces, separate rooms for cleaning hands, removal of clothes, showers and clean clothes may be necessary; Ensure workers handle dirty working clothes with care; Allow no personal belongings to be taken into production areas, or items that have been used in production areas to be taken home. Ensure general shop cleanliness is maintained by frequent washing/vacuuming. Clean every workplace at the end of every shift.

Blood lead monitoring: Set in place a certified monitoring regime which covers all site activities; Define a policy for submitting workers to regular blood lead monitoring, including increased frequency for workers undertaking high-risk jobs and workers with elevated blood lead levels; Ensure all workers have a blood test prior to working on site. Set an “action level” that is typically 5 µg/dL below the exposure limit deemed to be safe. If the action level is exceeded, appropriate measures are to be taken, to prevent further increases in blood lead. If the safe threshold is exceeded, continue or begin ban on overtime, ensure strict hygiene procedures are followed, undertake detailed inspections to ensure correct use of personal protective equipment, undertake detailed inspections to ensure recommended workplace procedures are followed, move employee to workplace where exposure is expected to be lower or remove from lead environment altogether, further increase blood lead sampling frequency, and continue frequent sampling until results are below the first action level.

Personal Protection Equipment

Respiratory protection: Suitable respiratory protective device recommended recommended if work activity is likely to result in formation of lead fumes, vapours or dust. In case of brief or low level exposure use dust mask or half mask with particle filter P2. Assess the need to wear respiratory protective equipment in production areas. Consider use effective masks accompanied by a compliance policy (ensure proper shaving; ensure workers do not remove RPE in production areas in order to communicate). Where masks are used, employ formal mask cleaning and filter changing strategies.

Hand Protection: Protective gloves. Material of gloves: Neoprene or Leather.

Eye protection: Safety glasses.

Skin protection: Wear protective work clothing. For workers in areas of significant exposure, provide sufficient working clothes to enable daily change into clean clothes. In such cases all work clothing should be cleaned by the employer on a daily basis and is not permitted to leave the work site.

Environmental Protection

One or more of the following measures may if necessary be taken to reduce emissions to water:
• Chemical precipitation: used primarily to remove the metal ions
• Sedimentation
• Filtration: used as final clarification step
• Electrolysis: for low metal concentration
• Reverse osmosis: extensively used for the removal of dissolved metals
• Ion exchange: final cleaning step in the removal of heavy metal from process wastewater

One or more of the following measures may if necessary be taken to reduce emissions to air:
• Electrostatic precipitators using wide electrode spacing: Wet electrostatic precipitators:
• Cyclones, but as primary collector Fabric or bag filters: high efficiency in controlling fine particulate (melting): achieve emission values Membrane filtration techniques can achieve
• Ceramic and metal mesh filters. PM10 particles are removed
• Wet scrubbers

Lead compound removal from treatment works should be at least the minimum default 84% removal used in the CSR. Solid material collected from on-site treatment must be sent for metal recovery or treated as hazardous waste. Waste water treatment sludge must be recycled, incinerated or landfilled and not used as agricultural fertiliser.

Stability and reactivity

No reactive hazards known.

Chemical stability
Expected to be stable under normal conditions of use.

Possibility of hazardous reactions
None expected.

10.4 Conditions to avoid
Avoid excessive exposure to heat.

Incompatible materials
Oxidising agents.

Hazardous decomposition products
No decomposition if used as directed.

Disposal considerations

Dispose of in accordance with local regulations.