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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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Description of key information

Westlake et al, 1981, contained several different experiments, these are presented separately to provide the a more complete presentation of both the data and the rational for reliability. Experiment 1 was conducted as an acute oral toxicity test. A single dose was administered to a group of female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) by gelatin capsule or by intraperitoneal injection. 24 hours after administration the animals were sacrificed and subject to gross necropsy and histopathology. A 24 hour LD50 of 130mg/kg bw was reported based upon mortality. This study was selected as the key study as it provides reliable acute toxicity results. Experiment 2 was conducted as a short-term dietary toxicity study. Japanese Quail were dosed (by inturbation) for 5, 7 or 21 days. A 5 day LC50 value of 11.1 mg total day was reported based upon mortality.
Rowe et al, 1952, was conducted as an acute oral toxicity study. A single dose (3% in olive oil) was given to chicks by inturbation. An acute LD50 of 0.079 g/kg based on mortality was reported. Alumot & Mandel, 1969, contained several experiments, a short-term dietary toxicity experiment and also three reproduction toxicity studies. In all studies the gonatotropin levels and the size of eggs layed was observed for changes. In the short-term dietary toxicity study the gonadotropin level did not vary in a dose-reponse significant way and no effects were thereefore noted. In the three reproduction studies the size of the eggs layed by the treated hens was reduced in a statistically significant way during treatment with the test material. Hormone replacement injections did not vary this dose-reponse effect.

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Additional information

Westlake et al, 1981, was awarded a reliability score of 2 as the methodology (non guideline) and results were clearly presented and the study peer-reviewed. This study is presented as the key study for this endpoint as it is the most reliabile and recent study available. Rowe et al, 1952, and Alumot & Mandel, 1969 were awarded reliability scores of 4 as insufficient information was presented to allow for assessment of the reliability. These studies are presented as supporting information only.