Registration Dossier

Toxicological information

Direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other

Administrative data

Endpoint:
direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other
Type of information:
other: clinical case reports
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
circa 1982 - 1998
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Case reports of childred accidentally ingesting nitroethane

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Nitroethane poisoning from an artificial fingernail remover.
Author:
Hornfeldt, C.S. and Rabe, W.H.
Year:
1994
Bibliographic source:
Clin Toxicol 32(3): 321-324.
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Rebound severe methemoglobinemia from ingestion of a nitroethane artificial-fingernail remover
Author:
Osterhoudt, K.C., Wiley, C.C., Dudley, R., Sheen, S. and Henretig, F.M.
Year:
1995
Bibliographic source:
J Pediatrics 126: 819-821.
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Prolonged formation of methemoglobin following nitroethane ingestion
Author:
Shepherd, G., Grover, J. and Klein-Schwartz, W.
Year:
1998
Bibliographic source:
Clin Toxicol 36: 613-616
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Severe Methemogolbinemia following Nitroethane Ingestion
Author:
Wells, S.R. and Anderson, D.A.
Year:
1996
Bibliographic source:
Clinical Toxicology, 34:5, 553 - 636 Poster Session A

Materials and methods

Study type:
poisoning incident
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Case reports of accidental poisoning
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
Nitroethane-containing artificial nail removers. At least one case report cited the test material as 100% nitroethane.

Method

Subjects:
5 children who accidentally ingested artificial nail remover.
Route of exposure:
oral
Reason of exposure:
accidental
Exposure assessment:
estimated

Results and discussion

Clinical signs:
In each instance, cyanosis and methemoglobinemia occurred 5-10 hours after exposure.

Any other information on results incl. tables

The clinical signs resolved after treatment with methylene blue. The delayed onset of methemoglobinemia suggests that a metabolite was responsible. Nitrites are acknowledged as formers of methemoglobin.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Cyanosis and methemoglobinemia occurred 5-10 hours after exposure, which resolved after treatment with methylene blue. The delayed onset of methemoglobinemia suggests that a metabolite was responsible.
Executive summary:

Five clinical cases were reported of children accidentally ingesting several drops to 90 ml of artificial fingernail removers containing nitroethane.The cases occurred in children aged 1-3, who ingested anywhere from "a few drops" to 90 ml of the products. In each instance, cyanosis and methemoglobinemia occurred 5-10 hours after exposure, which resolved after treatment with methylene blue. The delayed onset of methemoglobinemia suggests that a metabolite was responsible.