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Description of key information

4',5'-dibromofluorescein is non toxic by oral route.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Acute toxicity: via oral route

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
acute toxicity: oral
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Data is from QSAR Toolbox 3.4
Justification for type of information:
QSAR prediction: migrated from IUCLID 5.6
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: estimation
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using QSAR Toolbox version 3.4
GLP compliance:
not specified
Test type:
other: No data
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
not specified
Sex:
not specified
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
No data available
Route of administration:
other: Oral
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on oral exposure:
No data available
Doses:
No data available
No. of animals per sex per dose:
No data available
Control animals:
not specified
Details on study design:
No data available
Statistics:
No data available
Preliminary study:
No data available
Sex:
not specified
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
4 932.1 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
Remarks on result:
other: 50 % mortality observed
Mortality:
50 % mortality observed was observed in treated rats.
Clinical signs:
No data available
Body weight:
No data available
Gross pathology:
No data available
Other findings:
No data available

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: LD50
Estimation method: Takes average value from the 5 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" or "e" )  and ("f" and ( not "g") )  )  and ("h" and ( not "i") )  )  and "j" )  and ("k" and ( not "l") )  )  and "m" )  and ("n" and "o" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aryl AND Aryl halide AND Fused carbocyclic aromatic AND Fused saturated heterocycles AND Heterocyclic spiro rings AND Isobenzofuran AND Lactone AND Phenol AND Xanthene by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aryl halide AND Fused carbocyclic aromatic AND Fused saturated heterocycles AND Heterocyclic spiro rings AND Isobenzofuran AND Lactone AND Overlapping groups AND Phenol AND Xanthene by Organic Functional groups (nested)

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic compound AND Aryl bromide AND Aryl halide AND Carbonic acid derivative AND Carboxylic acid derivative AND Diarylether AND Ether AND Halogen derivative AND Heterocyclic compound AND Hydroxy compound AND Lactone AND Phenol by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol)

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic compound AND Aryl bromide AND Aryl halide AND Carbonic acid derivative AND Carboxylic acid derivative AND Diarylether AND Ether AND Halogen derivative AND Heterocyclic compound AND Hydroxy compound AND Lactone AND Phenol by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol)

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Phenolphthaleins OR Phenols (Acute toxicity) by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.4

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Flavonoids OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation >> Hydroxamic Acids OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR AN2 >> Michael-type addition on alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds OR AN2 >> Michael-type addition on alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds >> Four- and Five-Membered Lactones OR AN2 >> Michael-type conjugate addition to activated alkene derivatives OR AN2 >> Michael-type conjugate addition to activated alkene derivatives >> Alpha-Beta Conjugated Alkene Derivatives with Geminal Electron-Withdrawing Groups OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation >> Polarized Haloalkene Derivatives OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release >> Specific Acetate Esters OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation >> Polarized Haloalkene Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Amino Anthraquinones OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Coumarins OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> DNA Intercalators with Carboxamide and Aminoalkylamine Side Chain OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Fused-Ring Nitroaromatics OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR Non-specific OR Non-specific >> Incorporation into DNA/RNA, due to structural analogy with  nucleoside bases    OR Non-specific >> Incorporation into DNA/RNA, due to structural analogy with  nucleoside bases    >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR Radical OR Radical >> Generation of ROS by glutathione depletion (indirect) OR Radical >> Generation of ROS by glutathione depletion (indirect) >> Haloalkanes Containing Heteroatom OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation >> Five-Membered Aromatic Nitroheterocycles OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Amino Anthraquinones OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Anthrones OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> C-Nitroso Compounds OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Conjugated Nitro Compounds OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Coumarins OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Flavonoids OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Fused-Ring Nitroaromatics OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> N-Hydroxylamines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitroaniline Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitrophenols, Nitrophenyl Ethers and Nitrobenzoic Acids OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Polynitroarenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Thiols OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after diazonium or carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after diazonium or carbenium ion formation >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Amino Anthraquinones OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Conjugated Nitro Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Fused-Ring Nitroaromatics OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitroaniline Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitrophenols, Nitrophenyl Ethers and Nitrobenzoic Acids OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Polynitroarenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution after glutathione-induced nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution after glutathione-induced nitrenium ion formation >> C-Nitroso Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution on diazonium ion OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution on diazonium ion >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Acylation OR SN2 >> Acylation >> Hydroxamic Acids OR SN2 >> Acylation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR SN2 >> Acylation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after cyclization OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after cyclization >> Nitrogen and Sulfur Mustards OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Polarized Haloalkene Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom >> Haloalkanes Containing Heteroatom OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom >> Sulfonates and Sulfates OR SN2 >> Alkylation, ring opening SN2 reaction OR SN2 >> Alkylation, ring opening SN2 reaction >> Four- and Five-Membered Lactones OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Coumarins OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Haloalkanes Containing Heteroatom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at sp3 and activated sp2 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at sp3 and activated sp2 carbon atom >> Polarized Haloalkene Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 attack on activated carbon Csp3 or Csp2 OR SN2 >> SN2 attack on activated carbon Csp3 or Csp2 >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.4

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates >> Benzylamines-Acylation OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates >> Thiazolidinediones OR Michael addition OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation of Heterocyclic Ring Systems OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation of Heterocyclic Ring Systems >> Furans OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation of Heterocyclic Ring Systems >> Thiophenes-Michael addition OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> 5-alkoxyindoles OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Alkyl phenols OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Arenes OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Hydroquinones OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition >> Alpha, beta- unsaturated amides OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition >> Alpha, beta- unsaturated ketones OR Schiff base formers OR Schiff base formers >> Chemicals Activated by P450 to Glyoxal  OR Schiff base formers >> Chemicals Activated by P450 to Glyoxal  >> Ethylenediamines (including piperazine) OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation >> Allyl benzenes OR SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation OR SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation >> Aliphatic tertiary amines OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Aromatic azo OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Aromatic nitro OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Primary (unsaturated) heterocyclic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Primary aromatic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Secondary aromatic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Tertiary aromatic amine OR SN2 OR SN2 >> P450 Mediated Epoxidation OR SN2 >> P450 Mediated Epoxidation >> Thiophenes-SN2 OR SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom >> Aliphatic halides by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Not bioavailable by Lipinski Rule Oasis ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Group 14 - Carbon C AND Group 16 - Oxygen O AND Group 17 - Halogens Br AND Group 17 - Halogens F,Cl,Br,I,At by Chemical elements

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Group 16 - Sulfur S OR Group 17 - Halogens Cl OR Group 17 - Halogens I by Chemical elements

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Similarity boundary:Target: Oc1ccc2c(c1Br)Oc1c(ccc(O)c1Br)C21c2ccccc2C(=O)O1
Threshold=20%,
Dice(Atom centered fragments)
Atom type; Count H attached; Hybridization

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= 5.04

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 5.6

Interpretation of results:
not classified
Remarks:
Migrated informationCriteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
Estimated LD50 was found to be 4932.1 mg/kg bw when rats were treated with 4', 5'-dibromofluorescein orally.
Executive summary:

Acute oral toxicity was estimated using QSAR Toolbox 3.4 in rats by using4', 5'-dibromofluoresceinorally. 50 % mortality observed was observed in treated rats at 4932.1 mg/kg bw. Therefore, estimated LD50 was found to be 4932.1 mg/kg bw whenrats were treated with4', 5'-dibromofluorescein orally.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Value:
4 932.1 mg/kg bw
Quality of whole database:
Data is klimisch 2 and from QSAR Toolbox 3.4

Acute toxicity: via inhalation route

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Acute toxicity: via dermal route

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Acute oral toxicity:

Based on the data available for target4',5'-dibromofluorescein(CAS no 596-03-2) and its read across Sodium fluorescein (CAS no 518-47-8) and Phloxine B (CAS no 18472-87-2) is summaries as below

 Based on the prediction done by using QSAR Toolbox 3.4 (2016), acute oral toxicity was estimated in rats by using4', 5'-dibromofluoresceinorally. 50 % mortality observed was observed in treated rats at 4932.1 mg/kg bw. Therefore, estimated LD50 was found to be 4932.1 mg/kg bw whenrats were treated with4', 5'-dibromofluorescein orally.

In a review given by Smart et al (1984) for read across, acute oral toxicity was evaluated in rat by using Sodium fluorescein the concentration of 6720 mg/kg bw. 50 % mortality was observed in treated rats at 6720 mg/kg bw. Therefore, LD50 was considered to be 6720 mg/kg bw when rats were treated with Sodium fluorescein orally.

In above similar study, acute oral toxicity was evaluated in mice by using Sodium fluorescein. 50 % mortality was observed in treated mice at 4740 mg/kg bw. Therefore, LD50 was considered to be 4740 mg/kg bw when mice were treated with Sodium fluorescein orally.

In a study conducted by Hara et al (1998) for read across, acute oral toxicity was evaluated in human by using Fluorescein sodium in the concentration of 10ml of 2500 mg/kg in a form of ampules, which contained 5 ml of sodium fluorescein each, were opened and 4 grams of sugar was added to offset the bitterness of the solution to check the abnormilities of eyes. A total of 1,787 patients (2,625 eyes are included in the present study. Diabetic patients were given one teaspoonful of artificial sweetener in place of sugar. 31 patients (1.7%) experienced minimal itching, discomfort, or nausea either immediately after ingestion or 20 to 30 minutes thereafter. to check the abnormilities of eyes. A total of 1,787 patients (2,625 eyes are included in the present study. Therefore, LD0 was considered to be mg/kg when human were treated with Fluorescein sodium.

In a study conducted by Sasakiet al(2002) for read across, acute oral toxicity was evaluated in ddY male mice by using Phloxine B in the concentration of 2000 mg/kg bw orally by gavage in saline. No effect on survival of treated male mice were observed at 2000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, LD50 was considered to be > 2000 mg/kg bw when ddY male mice were treated with Phloxine B orally by gavage in saline.

Thus, based on the above available data for target4',5'-dibromofluorescein(CAS no 596-03-2) and its read across Sodium fluorescein (CAS no 518-47-8) and Phloxine B (CAS no 18472-87-2) is not likely to be classified as an acute oral toxicant.

Justification for selection of acute toxicity – oral endpoint

estimated LD50 was found to be 4932.1 mg/kg bw when rats were treated with 4', 5'-dibromofluorescein orally.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the above available data for target4',5'-dibromofluorescein(CAS no 596-03-2) and its read across Sodium fluorescein (CAS no 518-47-8) and Phloxine B (CAS no 18472-87-2) is not likely to be classified as an acute oral toxicant.