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Exposure related observations in humans: other data

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
exposure-related observations in humans: other data
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2004
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with generally accepted scientific standards and described in sufficient detail

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Particle characteristics in the reactor and pelletizing areas of carbon black production
Author:
Kuhlbusch, T. A. and H. Fissan
Year:
2006
Bibliographic source:
J Occup Environ Hyg 3(10): 558-567.
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Number size distribution, mass concentration, and particle composition of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 in bag filling areas of carbon black´ production
Author:
Kuhlbusch, Th., Neumann AS, Fissan H
Year:
2004
Bibliographic source:
J Occup Environ Hyg 1: 11
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Nanoparticle exposure at nanotechnology workplaces: A review
Author:
Kuhlbusch Th, Asbach Ch, Fissan H, Göhler D, Stintz M
Year:
2011
Bibliographic source:
Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2011, 8:22

Materials and methods

Type of study / information:
study of three carbon black manufacturing facilities
Endpoint addressed:
other: characterisation of airborne particle sizes at the workplace
Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline available
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Carbon black
EC Number:
215-609-9
EC Name:
Carbon black
Cas Number:
1333-86-4
Molecular formula:
C
IUPAC Name:
Carbon black
Test material form:
other: solid: non-nanoform; solid: nanoform, no surface treatment; solid: nanoform, surface-treated
Specific details on test material used for the study:
different grades of carbon black

Method

Details on study design:
Bagging areas, production and pelletizing areas of three plants
Exposure assessment:
measured

Results and discussion

Results:
In the workplace, the lower end of the size distribution curve for carbon black particles is at around 400 nm with modes (maxima) around 1-2 µm dae and > 8µm dae (the larger size mode went beyond the particle size range investigated). The study demonstrated that carbon black manufacturing workers are not exposed to nanoscale (size range between 1 to 100 nanometers) carbon black particles.  There were no exposure to carbon black particles less than 400 nanometers aerodynamic diameter.  Ultrafine particles (< 100 nm), detected in the bag filling areas were attributed to non-carbon black sources such as forklift and gas heater emissions. A follow-up study of the same three facilities found no significant release of carbon black nanoparticles or agglomerates from closed production and pelletizing processes.  Other particle sources, such as traffic emissions, and grease and oil fumes from maintenance activities significantly influenced particle number concentration.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
In the workplace, the lower end of the size distribution curve for carbon black particles is at around 400 nm with modes (maxima) around 1-2 µm dae and > 8µm dae (the larger size mode went beyond the particle size range investigated).
Executive summary:

A study of three carbon black manufacturing facilities demonstrated that carbon black manufacturing workers are not exposed to nanoscale (size range between 1 to 100 nanometers) carbon black particles.  There were no exposures to carbon black particles less than 400 nanometers aerodynamic diameter.  Ultrafine particles (< 100 nm), detected in the bag filling areas, were attributed to non-carbon black sources such as forklift and gas heater emissions. A follow-up study of the same three facilities found no significant release of carbon black nanoparticles or agglomerates from closed production and pelletizing processes.  Other particle sources, such as traffic emissions, and grease and oil fumes from maintenance activities significantly influenced particle number concentration.