Registration Dossier

Identification

Chemical structure
Display Name:
Superphosphates, concd.
EC Number:
266-030-3
EC Name:
Superphosphates, concd.
CAS Number:
65996-95-4
Molecular formula:
not applicable
IUPAC Name:
Superphosphates, concd.

Type of Substance

Composition:
multi-constituent substance
Origin:
inorganic

Substance Identifiers open all close all

  • Abono fosfatado 0-46-0
  • Concentrated superphosphate
  • GTSP
  • GTSP 2-4 MM. GTSP 40WS
  • GTSP AOAC B
  • GTSP AOAC IN CONTAINER
  • GTSP AOAC STANDARD
  • GTSP EU STANDARD
  • GTSP ITALY
  • Granular TSP
  • Granular triple superphosphate
  • Super 45
  • Superfosfato triple
  • TSP
  • TSP powder (TSP-ROP)
  • Triple Superphosphate
  • Triple super phosphate (TSP)
  • Triple superphopshate
  • TSP
    (public name)

    Compositions

    Boundary Composition(s) open all close all

    State Form:
    solid: bulk


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate

    Legal Entity Composition(s) open all close all

    State Form:
    solid: bulk


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate
    State Form:
    solid: bulk


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate) monohydrate
    EC Number:
    600-059-8
    CAS Number:
    10031-30-8
    Molecular formula:
    H6CaO9P2
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate) monohydrate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulphate hemihydrate
    EC Number:
    600-067-1
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    CaSO4.0.5H2O
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium sulphate hemihydrate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate
    State Form:
    solid: bulk


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate
    State Form:
    solid: bulk


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate
    State Form:
    solid: bulk


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate
    State Form:
    solid: bulk


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate
    State Form:
    solid: bulk


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate
    State Form:
    solid: bulk


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate
    State Form:
    solid: particulate/powder


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 4
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Fluorapatite (Ca5F(PO4)3)
    EC Number:
    215-144-1
    EC Name:
    Fluorapatite (Ca5F(PO4)3)
    CAS Number:
    1306-05-4
    Molecular formula:
    Ca5FO12P3
    IUPAC Name:
    Not appliicable
    Constituent 5
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Orthophosphoric acid
    EC Number:
    231-633-2
    EC Name:
    Orthophosphoric acid
    CAS Number:
    7664-38-2
    Molecular formula:
    H3O4P
    IUPAC Name:
    phosphoric acid


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Orthophosphoric acid
    EC Number:
    231-633-2
    EC Name:
    Orthophosphoric acid
    CAS Number:
    7664-38-2
    Molecular formula:
    H3O4P
    IUPAC Name:
    phosphoric acid
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 4
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Orthophosphoric acid
    EC Number:
    231-633-2
    EC Name:
    Orthophosphoric acid
    CAS Number:
    7664-38-2
    Molecular formula:
    H3O4P
    IUPAC Name:
    phosphoric acid
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Water
    EC Number:
    231-791-2
    EC Name:
    Water
    CAS Number:
    7732-18-5
    Molecular formula:
    H2O
    IUPAC Name:
    water


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate) monohydrate
    CAS Number:
    10031-30-8
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.2H3O4P.H2O
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate) monohydrate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate) monohydrate
    CAS Number:
    10031-30-8
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.2H3O4P.H2O
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate) monohydrate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Orthophosphoric acid
    EC Number:
    231-633-2
    EC Name:
    Orthophosphoric acid
    CAS Number:
    7664-38-2
    Molecular formula:
    H3O4P
    IUPAC Name:
    phosphoric acid
    Constituent 4
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Aluminium sulphate
    EC Number:
    233-135-0
    EC Name:
    Aluminium sulphate
    CAS Number:
    10043-01-3
    Molecular formula:
    Al.3/2H2O4S
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Magnesium sulphate
    EC Number:
    231-298-2
    EC Name:
    Magnesium sulphate
    CAS Number:
    7487-88-9
    Molecular formula:
    H2O4S.Mg
    IUPAC Name:
    Magnesium Sulfate


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    EC Number:
    231-837-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium bis(dihydrogenorthophosphate)
    CAS Number:
    7758-23-8
    Molecular formula:
    CaH4O8P2
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    Constituent 2
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium sulfate
    EC Number:
    231-900-3
    EC Name:
    Calcium sulfate
    CAS Number:
    7778-18-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.H2O4S
    IUPAC Name:
    calcium sulfate
    Constituent 3
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    EC Number:
    231-826-1
    EC Name:
    Calcium hydrogenorthophosphate
    CAS Number:
    7757-93-9
    Molecular formula:
    Ca.HO4P
    IUPAC Name:
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate

    Composition(s) generated upon use

    Other types of composition(s)