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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to birds
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1991
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
This study does not follow any recommended methodology, and only determines SMCA concentrations from birds found dead next to a field previously sprayed with SMCA, but the field had also been sprayed with dimethoate a week earlier, thus the study is not reliable.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Sodium monochlorate poisoning of greenfinches
Author:
Quick et al
Year:
1992
Bibliographic source:
Forensic Science International, 54:1-8

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Crop contents (1 g) and tissues (1 g) were homogenised in water (5 ml) in a
large centrifuge tube. The homogenate was transferred to a lo-ml conical centrifuge
tube and centrifuged at 2500 rev./min for 10 min. Sephadex soaked in
water was added to the chromatography column to a depth of 10 mm and washed
with 0.05 M formate buffer (10 ml) prior to use. The supernatant was transferred
directly to the prepared sephadex column and left to drain through the column
under gravity. Chloroacetate was eluted from the sephadex column with 2 x 1
ml 0.2 M potassium bromide. The eluate was collected in a conical centrifuge
tube and evaporated to dryness under nitrogen at 75°C. The residue was resuspended
in 1 ml 0.2 N sulphuric acid with the aid of a rotamixer. Ether (1 ml) was
added to the tube and the contents mixed thoroughly. The tube was centrifuged
at 2500 rev./min for 5 min. The ether layer was removed and retained. The
aqueous phase was re-extracted with ether (1 ml). The ether extracts were combined
and methanol (0.15 ml) was added prior to methylation.
Normal avian tissue (1 g) plus 0.1 ml (= 10 ug) stock sodium chloroacetate standard
was treated similarly.
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Dose method:
feed
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
not specified

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
other: Carduelis chloris
Details on test organisms:
Greenfinch (Carduelis chloris)

Study design

Remarks:
unclear exposure duration
No. of animals per sex per dose and/or stage:
no information
Nominal and measured doses / concentrations:
no information
Details on test conditions:
no information

Examinations

Reference substance (positive control):
not specified

Results and discussion

Effect levels
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
75 mg/kg bw/day
Conc. / dose based on:
not specified
Basis for effect:
mortality

Any other information on results incl. tables

Level of sodium monochloroacetate in greenfinch tissues

 

Tissue

μg/g SMCA Duplicate analysis

Brain

4.6

8.6

Crop contents

7.1

9.8

Liver

0.3

0

Muscle

7.6

7.4

Intestine

4.9

4.0

 

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
This study is based on lots of assumptions as to how the birds could have been exposed to SMCA. The onion field (to which the birds are assumed to have eaten from) had been sprayed with dimethoate previously. Thus the toxic effects may not be solely attributed to dimethoate.
Executive summary:

This study is based on the measurement of SMCA from birds that were found dead next to an onion field that had been sprayed with SMCA. On the same field, dimethoate (an organophosphorous pesticide) had been sprayed 2 weeks earlier. Greenfinches are seed eating birds, thus seeds are assumed as the method of exposure. SMCA was analysed from several tissues: brain, crop contents, liver, muscle, and intestine. The LD50 of SMCA to the greenfinches was extrapolated from geese, with the assumption that a dose of 2.3 mg SMCA would be lethal to a greenfinch weighing 30 g, thus assuming that the birds must have ingested a lethal dose dissolved in 50 ul of spray adhering to dry seeds.

Based on the assumptions in this study, a dose of 75 mg/kg of SMCA would kill 50 of the birds.