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Toxicological information

Direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other
Type of information:
other: NICNAS Risk Assessment
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
other: NICNAS Risk Assessment

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
publication
Title:
ortho-Dichlorobenzene - Priority Existing Chemical Assessment Report No. 14
Author:
NICNAS (National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme)
Year:
2001
Bibliographic source:
Commonwealth of Australia 2000; ISBN 0642 45524 4
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Einige Beobachtungen über Ortho-Dichlorobenzol
Author:
Arch Gewerbepath Gewerbhyg, 10:546-549
Year:
1941
Bibliographic source:
Arch Gewerbepath Gewerbhyg, 10:546-549
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
The chemistry of industrial toxicology
Author:
Elkins, H. B.
Year:
1959
Bibliographic source:
2x ed. New York, Joim Wiley and Sons Inc.
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Dermatitis from orthodichlorobenzene
Author:
Downing, JG
Year:
1939
Bibliographic source:
J Am Med Assoc, 112:1457
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Anémie hémolytique aiguë chez une ouvrière d'une teinturerie exposée aux inhalations de chlorobenzènes
Author:
Gadrat, J., Monnier, J., Ribert, A. and Bourse, R.
Year:
1962
Bibliographic source:
Arch Mal Prof, 23: 710-714.
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Hémopathies graves et exposition a des dérivés chlorés du benzène (a propos de 7 cas)
Author:
Girard, R., Tolot, F., Martin, P. And Bourret, J.
Year:
1969
Bibliographic source:
J Med Lyon, 50:771-773
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Clastogenic chromosornal aberrations in 26 individuals accidentally exposed to Ortho-dichlorobenzene vapors in the National Medical Center in Mexico City
Author:
Zapata-Gayon, C., Zapata-Gayon, N. and Gonzalez-Angulo, A.
Year:
1982
Bibliographic source:
Arch Environ Health, 37:231-235

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
NICNAS Risk Assessment
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
1,2-dichlorobenzene
EC Number:
202-425-9
EC Name:
1,2-dichlorobenzene
Cas Number:
95-50-1
Molecular formula:
C6H4Cl2
IUPAC Name:
1,2-dichlorobenzene
Details on test material:
NICNAS Risk Assessment

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

NICNAS Risk Assessment:

Several case reports and some additional short abstracts concerning the effects of 1,2-dichlorobenzene on humans were available. They are summarized in the NICNAS Risk Assessment.

Irritant effects:

The effect of 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB) on human skin (inner forearm) was examined by means of the attachment of a glass cylinder to the skin of 2 subjects and placement of the liquid within the cylinder. After 15 minutes, a burning sensation was noticed at the site of application that increased in intensity over the next hour and disappeared after the liquid was removed. The skin became red, as did the surrounding area. At 24 hours the site was dark red and blistered. A brown pigmentation subsequently developed, which was still present 3 months later (Riedel, 1941).

Irritation to the eyes and respiratory passages of humans was reported to occur on exposure to 1,2-DCB at 100 ppm (Elkins, 1959).

Case reports:

There are few clinical studies not known and demonstrating a reports concerning the effects of 1,2-DCB on humans and no reports of on volunteers. In cases of accidental exposure the extent of exposure is the involvement of other chemicals uncertain. No studies were located clear causal relationship between 1,2-DCB exposure and death.

Cases in which 1,2-DCB has been associated with human toxicity include:

- A 47-year-old male glazier developed contact dermatitis after handling window frames treated with 1,2-DCB. Subsequent investigation involving a patch test indicated sensitivity to 1,2-DCB (Downing, 1939).

- An 18-year-old female worker developed headaches, fatigue, vertigo, bone-marrow hyperplasia, acute haemolytic anaemia and leukocytosis after chronic exposure to a dry-cleaning fluid composed of 95% 1,2-DCB and 5% 1,4-DCB (Gadrat el al., 1962).

- Seven cases of haematological disorders attributed to exposure to chlorobenzenes were described by Girard et al. (1969). Those attributed to 1,2-DCB exposure include:

- A 53-year-old male shoemaker who used glue-containing 1,2-DCB (2%) for 16 years developed chronic lymphoid leukaemia,   splenomegaly and hepatomegaly.

- A 15-year-old female who used a cleaner composed of 1,2-DCB (37%) to clean her clothes developed acute myeloblastic    leukaemia.

- A 40-year-old male who worked with and cleaned electrical equipment over a period of 10 years with a solvent containing a    mixture of the three isomers of dichlorobenzene developed chronic lymphoid leukaemia.

- A 55-year-old woman used 1 to 2 litres of dichlorobenzene per annum for household cleaning developed acute myeloblastic       leukaemia.

- A 40-year-old male with work-related exposure to 1,2-DCB, in addition to other chlorobenzenes, developed a    myeloproliferative syndrome.

Due to the unknown nature of other chemicals involved in the products used, their concentrations and lack of information on exposure levels and duration of exposure, the clinical effects described above can not be confidently attributed to 1,2-DCB exposure alone.

In another case report:

- Twenty six laboratory workers consisting of 8 males (range 26 to 46 years, mean 36 years) and 18 females (range 20 to 60 years, mean 30.9 years) were exposed to the vapour of 1,2-DCB for 4 days (8 hrs/day) which had been deployed as a pest control measure in a basement laboratory. Reported clinical symptoms included headache, vertigo, nausea, malaise and most individuals reported eye, nose and throat irritation. One individual developed a partial facial oedema (Zapata-Gayon, 1982).

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Executive summary:

NICNAS Risk Assessment