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EC number: 233-334-2
CAS number: 10124-43-3
Relevant and reliable data used
for the determination of a PNEC for the freshwater and marine
environments were retrieved for 13 different species: Aeolosoma sp.
(oligochaete), Daphnia magna (cladoceran), Hyalella azteca
(isopod), Lymnaea stagnalis (snail), Ceriodaphnia dubia
(cladoceran), Chironomus tentans (midge), Brachionus
calyciflorus (rotifer), Mytilus edulis (mussel), Mysidopsis
bahia (mysid), Neanthes arenaceodentata (marine annelid), Dendraster
excentricus (sand dollar), Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus (sea
urchin), and Crassostrea sp. (pacific oyster). Tests followed
international accepted guidance and were based on measured levels of
dissolved cobalt as cobalt dichloride. Values ranged from 1.4 to 6314 µg
Co/L for the freshwater species and 206 to 2763 µg Co/L for the marine
From the database of chronic
cobalt toxicity to freshwater invertebrates, 84 individual EC10
or NOEC values for 7 different individual species
were reported. The NOEC/L(E)C10 ranged from 1.4 µg/L to 45 µg/L for Ceriodaphnia
dubia exposed to a range of water types (CDI 2010i).
Selected values for the most sensitive endpoints used for derivation of
the aquatic freshwater HC5
Value (mg Co/L)
Heijerick et al. 2007;
CD1 2005; OSU 2020; OSU 2013; OSU 2016; OSU 2017
Heijerick et al. 2007; OSU 2017
Heijerick et al. 2007; Stubblefield and de Schamphelaere 2014
Pacific EcoRisk 2005
the database of chronic cobalt toxicity to marine invertebrates, NOEC or
EC10 values are reported for 6 species. The NOEC/L(E)C10 values range
from 206 µg Co/L for reproductive effects with the marine annelid, Neanthes
arenaceodentata (CDI 2010j) to 2763 µg Co/L for the developmental
endpoint with the oyster, Crassostrea sp (CDI 2010e).
table below represents the EC10 values of high quality studies used for
the derivation of HC5 and aquatic marine PNEC
Table X. High
quality studies used for derivation of the aquatic marine HC5and
Mysidopsis bahia (mysid)
neonatal total young
Neanthes arenaceodentata (marine annelid)
Efforts have been ongoing to characterize the influence of fresh water
quality parameters on the toxicity of cobalt to the cladoceran,
Ceriodaphnia dubia. Because water quality parameters (e.g., hardness,
pH, dissolved organic carbon, etc.) have effects on the bioavailability
and subsequent toxicity of metals to aquatic organisms, Biotic Ligand
Models (BLMs) have been developed for certain organisms. NOEC/EC10
values for Ceriodaphnia dubia were used to develop these models.
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