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Ecotoxicological information

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Additional information

The data on terrestrial toxicity generated in 2012 and 2013, i.e. from the OECD 222 Earthworm reproduction and the ISO 22030 Chronic toxicity in higher plants tests, allow the calculation of a PNEC for soil using assessment factors.

PNEC soil = 1.25 mg Additiv104 /kg soil (dry weight)

The lowest NOEC is was observed either in turnip rape at 14 day after germination DAE (62.5 mg/kg dry soil, based on plant fresh weight). Based on Table R.10.10 the appropriate assessment factor for derivation of PNEC soil is 50. It is worth mentioning that at 45 DAE the plant showed a recovery as evidenced by a NOEC of 500 mg/kg dry soil, for seed pod production, shoot dry weight and seed pod production fresh and dry weight. So the 14 DAE was clearly a transient effect from which the plant was able to recover.

Furthermore, to put things into perspective, the NOEC of 62.5 mg Additiv 104/kg dry soil would be equivalent to approximately 43 kg Additiv 104/hectare, adjusting for the soil humidity (see below for rationale). Conventional pesticides require application rates in the range of grams to thousands of grams per hectare in order to produce an effect (i.e. toxicity). Obviously their NOEC values are even lower. For example, a recent report stated that the average pesticide use rate in Germany is approx. 2.1 kg/ha (, so around 20 times lower than the 14 DAE NOEC value (in kg/ha), or 163 times lower than the 45 DAE NOEC. Thus, the relative “toxicity” of Additiv 104 to plants is not comparable to that of pesticides.

Rationale: 1 hectare = 10,000 m2; mixing depth = 5 cm (0.05 m); Soil density = 1.5 kg/L = 1.5 kg/1000 cm3

Volume of soil = 10000 m2* 0.05 m = 500 m3

Soil weight = 500000 * 1.5 = 750000 kg / hectare

(1 ha/750,000 kg) * (1 kg/x) = 0.00000133 ha  soil weight of 1 kg top soil in hectare units

If lowest seedling emergence NOEC is 62.5 mg/Kg dry soil, this is the same as 0.0625 g/kg, so:

0.0625 g/0.00000133 ha = 46,992.5 g/ha or ~ 47 kg/ha.

Taking into account the moisture of the soil (8.6% w/w), an adjusted rate would be 8.6% less so approx. 43 kg/ha.

In brief, the earthworm reproduction test reported no mortality or deleterious effects following treatment at 1000 mg Additiv 104/kg dry soil for 28 days, and no effects on juvenile production at Day 56. The EC50s for both adult mortality and reproduction was determined as >1000 mg/kg dry soil. On terrestrial plants, the effects of Additiv 104 on the emergence, early growth and reproduction of a turnip rape (Brassica rapa) and oat (Avena sativa) were assessed for a period of 45 and 48 days after emergence (DAE), respectively.  Results indicated no significant differences on emergence between 1000 mg/kg dry soil and solvent controls. For turnip, the EC50s for seed pod production and seed pod dry weight were determined as 783.95 and 744.16 mg/kg dry soil, respectively. These were the lowest short-term endpoint values observed, while all other EC50’s (including emergence) were in excess of the highest concentration tested (1000 mg/kg dry soil). The lowest No Observed Effect Concentration or NOECs were 62.5 mg/kg dry soil at 14 DAE for turnip rape fresh plant weight, and at 45 DAE 500 mg/kg for seed pod production, shoot dry weight and seed pod production fresh & dry weight. The only endpoint with a higher NOEC was shoot fresh weight at 1000 mg/kg. For oat, the EC50 for flower production was determined as 863.64 mg/kg dry soil, while the EC50s for flower fresh and dry weight at 810.79 and 494.16 mg/kg dry soil, respectively. The NOECs were either 500 mg/kg for flower production, and inflorescences fresh & dry weight, or 1000 mg/kg for shoot fresh and dry weight.