Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Toxic effect type:
dose-dependent

Effects on fertility

Description of key information

Toxicity to reproduction, OECD guideline 421 (Davies, 2009, GLP, K2)


Administration by oral gavage to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (10/sex/dose) at dose-levels of 50, 150 or 600 mg/kg bw/day.


NOAEL (systemic toxicity) = 150 mg/kg bw/day based body weight gain and food consumption reduction and clinical signs.


NOEL (mating and fertility) = 600 mg/kg bw/day.


NOAEL (developmental toxicity) = 600 mg/kg bw/day.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
screening for reproductive / developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
7 August 2008 to 15 May 2009
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP study conducted according to OECD guideline 421 with minor deviation: 7 females instead of a minimum of 8 required were obtained in the control group.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 421 (Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
7 females instead of a minimum of 8 required were obtained in the control group.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Janvier, Le Genest-Saint-Isle, France
- Age at study initiation: 11 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: mean body weight for males: 430 g (range: 393 g to 461 g) and for females: 274 g (range: 257 g to 288 g)
- Housing: individually housed in wire-mesh cages; towards the end of gestation and during lactation, the females were individually housed, and with
their litter after birth
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): SsniffR/M-H pelleted maintenance diet, SSNIFF Spezialdiäten GmbH, Soest, Germany, ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): filtered tap water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 6 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 22 ± 2
- Humidity (%): 50 ± 20
- Air changes (per hr): approximately 12 cycles/hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 h/12 h

IN-LIFE DATES: From: 13 August 2008 To: 6 October 2008
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Remarks:
purified by reverse osmosis
Details on exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS: The test item was administered as a suspension in the vehicle. The test item was mixed with the required quantity of vehicle in order to achieve the concentrations of 10, 30 and 120 mg/mL. The dosage forms were prepared for up to 3 days or 9 days of treatment following satisfactory results in the stability test over a 3-day or 9-day storage period at +4°C and protected from light. When not in use, the dosage forms were kept at +4°C and protected from light.

VEHICLE
- Concentration in vehicle: 10, 30 and 120 mg/mL
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage): constant dosage-volume of 5 mL/kg bw/day
- Purified water, obtained by reverse osmosis using Elix 5 (Millipore SA, Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, France)
Details on mating procedure:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1/1
- Length of cohabitation: overnight
- Proof of pregnancy: vaginal plug or sperm in vaginal smear referred to as day 0 of pregnancy
- Further matings after two unsuccessful attempts: each female was placed with the same male until mating occurred or 14 days had elapsed
- After successful mating each pregnant female was caged individually
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The test item concentration in samples of each control and test item dosage form prepared for use in weeks 1, 4 and 7 was determined. The dosage form samples were assayed using a validated method. The test item concentrations in the administered dosage forms analyzed in weeks 1, 4 and 7 of treatment remained within an acceptable range of [-2.2% to +6.7%] of variation compared to the nominal values.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Males: 2 weeks before mating, during the mating (maximum of 2 weeks) and post-mating periods (at least 2 weeks) until sacrifice (after the majority of the females per group had delivered; at least 6 weeks in total).
Females: 2 weeks before mating, during the mating period (maximum of 2 weeks), during gestation and lactation, until day 4 post-partum inclusive (or until sacrifice for un-mated and non-pregnant females).
Frequency of treatment:
Once a day, 7 days a week
Details on study schedule:
None
Dose / conc.:
50 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
150 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
600 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: The dose-levels were based on the results of the 4-week toxicity study (CIT/Study No. 23232 TSR) in which the same test item was administered by gavage at the dose-levels of 50, 150 and 600 mg/kg/day:
- no mortality occurred at any dose-level,
- at 50 mg/kg/day, epithelial cell hyperplasia and/or submucosal edema were seen in the forestomach of one male and one female,
- at 150 mg/kg/day, ptyalism was noted in all animals and epithelial cell hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, submucosal edema and erosion or ulceration were noted in the forestomach of one male and one female,
- at 600 mg/kg/day, ptyalism and loud/abdominal breathing were noted in all animals. Epithelial cell hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, submucosal edema and erosion or ulceration were noted in the forestomach of three males and three females.
Positive control:
None
Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: each animal was checked at least twice a day for mortality and signs of morbidity during the treatment period and once a day during the acclimation period.

CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes (including evidence of resorption for the females)
- Time schedule: each animal was observed at least once a day, at approximately the same time

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: The body weight of each male was recorded once before group allocation, on the first day of treatment (day 1), then once a week until sacrifice. The body weight of each female was recorded once before group allocation, on the first day of treatment (day 1), then once a week until mated (or until sacrifice) and on days 0, 7, 14 and 20 post-coitum and days 1 and 5 post-partum.

FOOD CONSUMPTION: Yes
The quantity of food consumed by each male was recorded once a week, over a 7-day period, from the first day of treatment until sacrifice.
The quantity of food consumed by each female was recorded once a week, over a 7-day period, from the first day of treatment through gestation (days 0-7, 7-14, 14-20 post-coitum intervals) and lactation (days 1-5 post-partum interval) until sacrifice.
During the mating period, the food consumption was noted for neither males nor females.

WATER CONSUMPTION: No
Oestrous cyclicity (parental animals):
The estrous cycle stage was recorded daily until the female was positive for mating.
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
No data
Litter observations:
PARAMETERS EXAMINED
The following parameters were examined in F1 offspring:
- the total litter size and numbers of pups of each sex were recorded as soon as possible after birth. The litters were observed daily in order to note the number of live, dead and cannibalized pups. An external examination of each pup was carried out and any external malformation was noted.
- the pups were observed daily, including during weekends and public holidays, for clinical signs or abnormal behavior.
- the weight of each pup was recorded on days 1 and 5 post-partum.

GROSS EXAMINATION OF PUPS:
Pups were sacrificed at post-partum day 5. A macroscopic examination was performed for all pups, including those found dead. Macroscopic lesions were preserved in 10% buffered formalin (or another appropriate fixative) and were not microscopically examined in a first instance.
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
SACRIFICE
- Male animals: after the delivery of the majority of the females per group
- Maternal animals: on day 5 post-partum; females which did not mate: 24-26 days after the last day of the mating period; females which had not delivered on day 25 post-coitum: on day 25 or day 26 post-coitum

GROSS NECROPSY
Gross necropsy consisted of examination of the external surfaces, all orifices, the cranial cavity, the external surfaces of the brain, the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities with their associated organs and tissues and the neck with its associated organs and tissues.
In all females, the number of implantation sites and corpora lutea was recorded.
In the females which did not mate or were apparently non-pregnant, the presence of implantation sites on the uterine horns were checked using ammonium sulphide staining technique.

HISTOPATHOLOGY / ORGAN WEIGHTS
The tissues indicated in Table 1 were weighed and/or prepared for microscopic examination (10% buffered formalin (except for testes and epididymides which were fixed in Davidson’s fixative)
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
Not applicable
Statistics:
Data other than organ weights: mean values were compared by one-way analysis of variance and the Dunnett test (mean values being considered as normally distributed and variances being considered as homogeneous). Percentage values were compared by the Fisher exact probability test.
Organ weights: PathData software (version 6.2b5) was used for the statistical analysis of organ weight data (level of significance: 0.05 or 0.01).
Reproductive indices:
Pre-implantation loss = 100 × (Number of corpora lutea - Number of implantation sites) / Number of corpora lutea
Post-implantation loss = 100 × (Number of implantation sites - Number of live concepti) / Number of implantations
Mating index = 100 × Number of mated animals / Number of paired animals
Fertility index = 100 × Number of pregnant female partners / Number of mated pairs
Gestation index = 100 × Number of females with live born pups / Number of pregnant females
Live birth index = 100 × Number of live born pups / Number of delivered pups
Offspring viability indices:
Viability index on day 4 post-partum = 100 × Number of surviving pups on day 4 post-partum / Number of live born pups
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Excessive salivation, loud breathing and/or half-closed eyes transiently throughout the treatment period in the males or for a few days in the females
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 600 mg/kg/day, during week 1, males gained less weight than controls and an initially lower mean food consumption was noted in males and females.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 600 mg/kg/day, during week 1, males gained less weight than controls and an initially lower mean food consumption was noted in males and females.
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Other effects:
not specified
Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
no effects observed
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
not examined
Reproductive performance:
no effects observed
CLINICAL SIGNS:
Males
At 600 mg/kg/day, all males presented excessive salivation (recorded as ptyalism) throughout the study (from day 4 or 5 until day 44). Half-closed eyes were observed in 9/10 males transiently throughout the study and loud breathing was noted in 7/10 males for a few days generally towards the end of the treatment period.
At 150 mg/kg/day, excessive salivation was observed transiently throughout the treatment period in 9/10 rats. In addition to excessive salivation, loud breathing and half-closed eyes were noted towards the end of the treatment period in one male, together with hypoactivity and emaciated appearance.
At 50 mg/kg/day, no test item treatment-related clinical signs were noted.
Females
At 600 mg/kg/day, during nearly the whole treatment period (including premating, gestation and lactation periods), almost all females presented excessive salivation and had half-closed eyes. Loud breathing was observed in one female at the end of the premating period, beginning and end of gestation and during lactation until terminal sacrifice, in another female during gestation and in four other females during the lactation period only.
One female, which was sacrificed on day 25 post-coitum due to absence of delivery, showed loud breathing on day 24 post-coitum.
At 150 mg/kg/day, one female showed excessive salivation transiently during the premating period, during gestation (on day 0 post-coitum only) and during lactation (from days 3 to 4 post-partum). Excessive salivation was also noted in one female from days 7 to 9 post-coitum.
At 50 mg/kg/day, only one female showed pallor of extremities and eyes, piloerection, round back and reddish vaginal discharge during lactation.

BODYWEIGHT:
Males
At 600 mg/kg/day, during week 1, males gained less weight than controls (23 g versus 44 g, p<0.001). However, throughout the study, mean body weights remained relatively unchanged compared to controls (-6% on day 43). The overall mean body weight gain was slightly lower than controls: 117 g versus 151 g, not statistically significant.
At 50 and 150 mg/kg/day, body weights were unaffected by the test item treatment.
Females
No test item treatment-related effects were noted at any dose-level during the premating period. From day 0 to day 7 of pregnancy, the mean body weight gain at 600 mg/kg/day was slightly lower than that of controls (22 g vs. 30 g) and mean body weights were slightly lower on day 7
and day 14 of pregnancy (315 g vs. 342 g, p<0.01, on day 7 of pregnancy and 355 g vs. 382 g, p<0.01, on day 14 of pregnancy). Thereafter, during pregnancy and lactation mean body weight gains were similar to those of the controls.
At 50 and 150 mg/kg/day, the mean body weight gains were similar to those of the controls during pregnancy and lactation.

FOOD CONSUMPTION:
Males
At 600 mg/kg/day, an initially lower mean food consumption was noted in the males when compared to controls (days 1 to 8: 30 g/day/male versus 34 g/day/male, -12%, p<0.001). Thereafter, similar mean food consumption was noted between all groups.
At 50 and 150 mg/kg/day, treatment with the test item had no effects on the mean food consumption.
Females
At 600 mg/kg/day, at the start of the premating period, females consumed less food than controls (days 1 to 8: 19 g/day/female versus 23 g/day/female, -17%, p<0.001). A similar effect was noted at the start of the gestation period (interval days 0 to 7 post-coitum: 24 g/day/female versus 30 g/day/female, -20%, p<0.01).
At 50 and 150 mg/kg/day, mean food consumption was generally unaffected by treatment with the test item whatever the study period; some slight differences were recorded but were transient and not dose-related.

REPRODUCTIVE DATA:
Mating data: Except for one female given 150 mg/kg/day, all pairs mated and the mean number of days of pairing before mating was 6.2, 3.0, 2.3 or 3.3 days.
Estrous cycles: No anomaly was detected in estrous stages that could be considered to be test item treatment-related. At 150 mg/kg/day, one female which did not mate was in diestrus for 6 consecutive days.
Fertility data: Three control, two low-dose and two high-dose females were not pregnant.
Delivery data: All groups had a similar mean duration of gestation and groups treated with the test item had similar mean numbers of corpora lutea and implantation sites per litter as the controls. The mean number of pups were delivered per litter and the mean number of live pups per litter on day 1 p.p. were unaffected by the test item treatment.

ORGAN WEIGHTS:
Statistically significant decrease in absolute and relative ovary weights was noted in females treated from 150 mg/kg/day (see table 2). However, given the absence of microscopic findings and the absence of significant decrease of pregnancy successes in rats from these groups, these findings were considered to be due to chance (i.e. bear no relationship to treatment) and be of no toxicological importance.

MACROSCOPIC EXAMINATION:
No treatment related macroscopic changes were noted in treated F0 parent animals. The gross changes noted in treated rats were those that may be occasionally encountered in rats of this age, strain and source breeder.

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION:
No treatment-related microscopic findings were noted in the testes, epididymides and ovaries of treated rats at any dose-levels.
Microscopic changes noted in the treated animals either were observed at similar incidence and severity as the control group or were those that are occasionally observed in control untreated rats.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
systemic toxicity
Effect level:
150 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: Excessive salivation transiently throughout the treatment period in the males or for a few days in the females
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Remarks:
mating and fertility
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Remarks on result:
not determinable due to absence of adverse toxic effects
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality / viability:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Sexual maturation:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings:
not examined
MORTALITY AND CLINICAL SIGNS:
The number of pups dying between days 1 and 4 or 5 post-partum was not impacted by the test
item treatment. In addition, no test item treatment-related clinical signs were noted for any pup.

BODY WEIGHT:
On day 5 p.p., at 600 mg/kg/day, male and female mean pup body weight was minimally lower than in controls. This correlated to slightly lower mean body weight gain noted in the pups during the lactation period, when compared to controls (3.8 g vs. 4.4 g, statistically non-significant). Changes were of similar amplitude in males and females. These changes were considered to be negligible.
At 50 and 150 mg/kg/day, no test item treatment-related differences were noted compared to controls.

SEX RATIO:
The mean percentage of male pups was between 43.4% and 55.7% at birth and between 41.5% and 56.6% on day 5 post-partum. There were thus no effects of the test item on the sex ratio of the pups at any dose-level.

NECROPSY FINDINGS:
There were no test item treatment-related macroscopic post-mortem observations in pups found dead or sacrificed on day 5 post-partum.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
developmental toxicity
Generation:
F1
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Remarks on result:
not determinable due to absence of adverse toxic effects
Reproductive effects observed:
not specified

Table 2: mean final body weights and mean ovaries weights

Dose

(mg/kg bw/day)

0

50

150

600

Number of females

n = 10

n = 10

n = 10

n = 10

Final mean body weight (g)

352.9 ± 27.34

351.8 ± 22.42

370.3 ± 26.07

345.0 ± 26.35

Number of pregnant females

n = 7

n = 8

n = 9

n = 8

Ovaries mean weight (g)

0.21686 ± 0.027

0.20538 ± 0.036

0.16889 ± 0.027 **

0.17650 ± 0.024 *

Mean % body

0.05926 ± 0.009

0.05766 ± 0.013

0.04553 ± 0.010 *

0.04989 ± 0.005

Mean ± SD; */**): Dunnett's test based on pooled variances at 5% (*) or 1% (**) level

Conclusions:
Under the experimental conditions of this study, it was considered that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for systemic toxicity is 150 mg/kg bw/day, the No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) for mating and fertility is 600 mg/kg bw/day and the NOAEL for developmental toxicity is 600 mg/kg bw/day.
Executive summary:

In a GLP study conducted according to OECD guideline 421, Chimexane NV was administered daily by oral gavage to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (10/sex/dose) at dose-levels of 50, 150 or 600 mg/kg bw/day for 2 weeks before mating, during mating, gestation and until day 4 post-partum for the females, and after the majority of the females per group had delivered, for the males. A control group received the vehicle (purified water) under the same experimental conditions.

During the dosing period, each F0 animal was observed twice daily for mortality and once daily for clinical signs. Body weight was recorded once before group allocation, on the first day of treatment and then about once a week until sacrifice. Food consumption was recorded about once a week, over a 7-day period, from the first day of treatment until sacrifice (except during the mating period). Animals were paired for a maximum of 14 days and the estrous cycle stage was recorded each morning until mating occurred. All F0 females of all groups were allowed to deliver normally and to rear their progeny until day 5 p.p.. Gestation and litter parameters were recorded and during the lactation period each pup was observed daily for survival and clinical signs. Pup body weight was recorded on days 1 and 5 p.p.. A macroscopic post-mortem examination was performed on all F0 parent animals and on all pups. All macroscopic lesions were sampled and preserved. Testes, epididymides, prostate and seminal vesicles from all F0 males and ovaries from all F0 females which delivered and were sacrificed on day 5 p.p. were weighed. Testes, epididymides, ovaries and any macroscopic lesions from F0 high-dose and control parent animals were microscopically examined.

The test item elicited effects at 600 mg/kg bw/day including transient reduced body weight gain and food consumption, particularly in the males, and excessive salivation, loud breathing and half-closed eyes in both sexes. There were no effects on mating, fertility, gestation or delivery and survival of the pups was not affected during the first days of lactation. There were no treatment-related macroscopic or microscopic findings. Similar clinical signs (excessive salivation) were observed in animals treated at 150 mg/kg bw/day but at a much lower incidence. These signs were considered not to be adverse. No other effects were observed. No treatment-related effects were observed at 50 mg/kg bw/day.

Under the experimental conditions of this study, it was considered that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for systemic toxicity is 150 mg/kg bw/day, the No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) for mating and fertility is 600 mg/kg bw/day and the NOAEL for developmental toxicity is 600 mg/kg bw/day.

Effect on fertility: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
150 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
GLP study conducted according to OECD guideline 421 with minor deviation.
Effect on fertility: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on fertility: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Additional information

In a GLP study conducted according to OECD guideline 421, Chimexane NV elicited effects at 600 mg/kg bw/day including transient reduced body weight gain and food consumption, particularly in the males, and excessive salivation, loud breathing and half-closed eyes in both sexes. There were no effects on mating, fertility and gestation or delivery. There were no treatment-related macroscopic or microscopic findings.


Therefore, it was considered that the NOAEL for systemic toxicity was 150 mg/kg bw/day and the NOEL for mating and fertility was 600 mg/kg bw/day.

Effects on developmental toxicity

Description of key information

Cross reading to valid animal studies with Chimexane NB: Prenatal developmental toxicity, OECD 414 (Chevalier, 2009, GLP, K2)


Administration by dietary admixture to groups of mated female Sprague-Dawley, Rj Han: SD rats (24/dose) at the dose levels of 0, 1878, 5634 and 12519 ppm (equivalent to target dose-levels of 0, 150, 450 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day).


NOAEL (maternal toxicity) = 5634 ppm (equivalent to 450 mg/kg bw/day) based on body weight gain and food consumption reduction.


NOEL (prenatal developmental toxicity) = 12519 ppm (equivalent to 1000 mg/kg bw/day) 

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
14 May 2008 - 22 April 2009
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
GLP study conducted according to OECD Guideline 414 with deviations: acclimation period followed for 4 or 5 days instead of 5 days; temperature and relative humidity were not recorded for one day; single instead of duplicate analyses was performed for determination of content in control group on Day 1
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
acclimation period followed for 4 or 5 days instead of 5 days; temperature and relative humidity were not recorded for one day; single instead of duplicate analyses was performed for determination of content in control group on Day 1
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Janvier, Le Genest-Saint-Isle, France.
- Age at study initiation: 10-11 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 267 g (mean body weight)
- Housing: Animals were housed individually in wire-mesh cages (43.0 x 21.5 x 18.0 cm).
- Diet: A04 C powdered maintenance diet (SAFE, Augy, France) distributed weekly, ad libitum
- Water: Tap water (filtered with a 0.22 μm filter), ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 4 or 5 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature: 22 ± 2 °C
- Humidity: 50 ± 20 %
- Air changes: About 12 cycles/h of filtered, non-recycled air
- Photoperiod: 12 h dark / 12 h light
Route of administration:
oral: feed
Vehicle:
other: dietary admixture, in A04 C powder maintenance diet
Details on exposure:
DIET PREPARATION
- For each concentration, a premix with the total amount of test item was prepared in the diet using a mixer. The final mix was prepared by dispersing the premix in the remaining diet in the mixer and then mixing for at least 10 minutes.
- Storage temperature of food: Dietary admixtures were prepared on a weekly basis and were stored in closed bags at room temperature and protected from light prior to use.

STABILITY
- Satisfactory homogeneity and stability of dietary admixtures prepared at 500 or 20000 ppm was previously demonstrated during the study (Study No. 34827 AHS), over a 14-day storage period in open feeders and in closed bags at room temperature.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
- Concentration of the test item was determined in samples of each control and test item dietary admixture prepared for use on the first day of treatment of the first female and on the last day of treatment of the last female.
- Acceptance criterion: Measured concentration = nominal concentration ± 20 %.

Results: Test item concentrations in the administered dietary admixtures analyzed on the first day of treatment of the first female and on the last day of treatment of the last female remained within an acceptable range of [- 17 % to + 4 %] of variation compared to the nominal values.

Details on mating procedure:
- Impregnation procedure: Purchased timed pregnant; the females were mated at the breeder's facilities (Janvier, Le Genest-Saint-Isle, France).
- Proof of pregnancy: Detection of vaginal plug referred to as Day 0 post-coitum (p.c.).
Duration of treatment / exposure:
15 days (Days 6-20 p.c.)
Frequency of treatment:
Once daily; animals were allowed the dietary admixture ad libitum
Duration of test:
22 days (Days 0-21 p.c.)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
24 mated females/dose
Control animals:
yes, plain diet
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: Dose levels were selected on the basis of the results of 4-week toxicity study (Study No. 31261 TSR) in which the test item was administered by dietary admixture at the target dose-levels of 150, 450 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day.
- Rationale for animal assignment: Before the beginning of the treatment period, the animals were allocated to the groups, according to a stratified procedure based on body weight recorded on Day 2 p.c., to ensure comparatively similar mean body weights among groups.
Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE & CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
Time schedule:
- Mortality or signs of morbidity: Once a day before the start of treatment and then twice a day during treatment period, including weekends and public holidays.
- Clinical signs: Once daily

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Days 2, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 p.c.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study): Yes
- Time schedule: Days 2-6, 6-9, 9-12, 12-15, 15-18 and 18-21 p.c.
Compound intake calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Yes
- Achieved intake of the test item was calculated for the following intervals 6-9, 9-12, 12-15, 15-18 and 18-21 p.c. for each test item-treated group as follows:
D = C x FC/BW; where, D = achieved dosage (mg/kg bw/day), C = nominal concentration of active test item (ppm: mg test item/10^6 mg food), FC = mean food consumption (g/animal/day), BW = mean body weight (g)

POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: On Day 21 p.c., females were sacrificed by inhalation of carbon dioxide followed by cervical dislocation and were subjected to a macroscopic post-mortem examination (principal thoracic and abominal organs).

OTHER:
Preservation of tissues:
- Any macroscopic lesions observed were sampled and kept preserved in 10 % buffered formalin.
Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination: Yes
Examinations included:
- Gravid uterus weight: Yes
- Number of corpora lutea: Yes
- Number and distribution of implantations: Yes
- Number and distribution of early and late resorptions: Yes
- Number and distribution of uterine scars: Yes
- Number and distribution of dead and live fetuses: Yes
- Gross evaluation of placentas: Yes
Fetal examinations:
EXAMINATION OF FETUSES:
The first 20 litters/group were examined as follow:
- Live fetuses were sacrificed by a subcutaneous injection of thiopental sodium.
- Body weight of fetuses: Body weight of each live fetus was recorded.
- Sex of fetuses: Sex of each fetus [excluding the autolyzed fetus] was determined at the time of hysterectomy by visual assessment of the anogenital distance and was confirmed by examination of the sexual organs at the time of detailed dissection of the soft tissues or at evisceration.
- Dead fetuses: Dead fetus was fixed in Harison’s fluid for a possible further examination.
- External examinations: Yes [all per litter excluding the autolyzed fetus]; each fetus was subjected to a detailed external examination, which included the observation of all visible structures, surfaces and orifices.
- Soft tissue examinations: Yes, approximately half of the live fetuses in each litter were subjected to a detailed dissection of the soft tissues, which included observation of all the organs and structures of the neck, thorax and abdomen. The fetuses were then eviscerated and were fixed in Harison’s fluid for examination of the structures of the head.
- Skeletal examinations: Yes [all the remaining litters]; eviscerated and fixed with ethyl alcohol, stained with alizarin red S and alcian blue and examined for skeletal abnormalities including the observation of all the bones and cartilage structures of the head, spine, rib cage, pelvis and limbs.

For the remaining litters, fetuses were fixed with ethyl alcohol, stained with alizarin red S and alcian blue for further possible examination.

Statistics:
- Mean values were compared by one-way analysis of variance and the Dunnett test (mean values being considered as normally distributed and variances being considered as homogeneous).
- Percentage values were compared by the Fisher exact probability test.
Indices:
- Pre-implantation loss: [(Number of corpora lutea - Number of implantation sites) / Number of corpora lutea] X 100
- Post-implantation loss: [(Number of implantation sites - Number of live fetuses) / Number of implantation sites] X 100
- Fetal or litter incidence: (Total number of fetuses or litters with a particular finding / Total number of fetuses or litters examined)X 100
- Mean proportion of affected fetuses: (Sum of proportion of fetuses affected in each litter / Total number of litters examined) X 100
Historical control data:
Historical background data was used to compare the incidences of developmental toxicity.
Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:yes

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Pregnancy status:
- All mated animals were pregnant, except 2/24 control females and 1/24 test-item treated females per group, and had live fetuses at term.

Mortality and clinical signs:
- No mortality was observed.
- No clinical signs were observed except cutaneous lesions on the head in one female and misshapen ear in another female were observed at 150 mg/kg bw/day, however these two events were considered fortuitous in origin and unrelated to treatment with the test item.

Body weight and body weight change:
- Lower body weight gain was observed during the first 3 days of treatment in females receiving 1000 mg/kg bw/day when compared to controls (13 g vs. 23 g) and this effect was transient and coincided with the lower food consumption. However, the terminal body weight recorded on Gestation Day (GD) 21 was not statistically significantly different from the control value and the net body weight and the carcass weights did not differ from that of the control group. It could be concluded that the test item affected the body weight gain transiently.
- At 150 and 450 mg/kg bw/day, the body weight gain and the body weight were unaffected by the treatment with the test item.

Food consumption:
- Mean food consumption of females treated at 1000 mg/kg bw/day was lower than controls [21 g vs. 26 g from GD 6 to GD 9 (p<0.001), 24 g vs. 26 g from GD 9 to GD 12 (p<0.05) and 26 g vs. 29 g from GD 12 to GD 15 (p<0.05)] and they were considered to be test item treatment-related.
- At 150 and 450 mg/kg bw/day, the food consumption was considered to have been unaffected by the test item treatment.

Maternal necropsy findings:
- There were no necropsy findings which were attributable to the test item treatment. The single observation recorded concerned one control female with dilated and presence of serous content in the uterus; this animal was not pregnant.

Gravid uterus weight:
- Mean gravid uterus weight of test item-treated females was similar to that of the control group.

Litter data:
- Number of resorptions was similar between the test item-treated groups and the controls.
- No dead fetuses were noticed except one dead fetus at 450 mg/kg bw/day.
- No differences in the mean number of implantation sites and the number of live fetuses between the test item-treated and control groups.
- Sex ratio and mean fetal body weight were similar in the control and the treated groups.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
450 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity
Abnormalities:
no effects observed
Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
External observations:
- Total of 236, 249, 257 and 231 fetuses from the control, 150, 450 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups were examined. Apart from one fetus of the control group with omphalocele and a dead fetus at 450 mg/kg bw/day which was autolyzed, there were no remarkable external findings in any of the fetuses examined.

Soft tissue observations:
- Total of 112, 118, 123 and 110 fetuses from the control, 150, 450 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups were examined.
- Fetal soft tissue variations and malformations observed were randomly distributed within the groups including the control. Furthermore, as the incidence of the observations was very low and/or incidences of variations were within historical background data (dilated renal pelvis or dilated ureter, short or absent innominate artery), they were considered to be unrelated to treatment.

Skeletal and cartilage observations:
- Total of 124, 131, 134 and 121 fetuses from the control, 150, 450 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups were examined.
- As the incidences of skeletal and cartilage variations and malformations were low, recorded with similar frequency among the control and treated groups and in the absence of statistical differences, they were considered to be unrelated to treatment.
Remarks on result:
not determinable due to absence of adverse toxic effects
Abnormalities:
no effects observed
Developmental effects observed:
no

Table 7.8.2/1: Mean achieved dosages (mg/kg bw/day) between gestation Days 6 and 21


 






























Concentration (ppm)



1878



5634



12519



GD 6 to 21



159



464



992



Target dose-levels (mg/kg bw/day)



150



450



1000



(% from target dose-level)



+ 6 %



+ 3 %



- 1 %



 


GD: gestation day


 


Mean achieved dosages increased in a nearly dose-proportional manner and mean values were very close to the targeted dose-levels of 150, 450 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day.


 


Table 7.8.2/2: Body weight and body weight change (g)


 























































Dose-level (mg/kg bw/day)



0



150



450



1000



BW, GD 6



269



267



265



264



BW, GD 21



418



421



414



404



BWG, GD 6-9



23



20



22



13 #



BWG, GD 6-21



+149



+154



+149



+139



Carcass weight



324.8



323.4



314.3



312.3



Net weight change from GD 6



+55.9



+56.6



+49.4



+48.0



 


GD: gestation day, BW: body weight, BWG: body weight gain, #: p<0.001.


 


Table 7.8.2/3: Food consumption


 








































































































Dose-level (mg/kg bw/day)



 



0



150



450



1000



Days 2-6



Mean



23 d



22



23



22



SD



2



3



3



2



Days 6-9



Mean



26 d



25



24



21 #



SD



3



3



3



4



Days 9-12



Mean



26 d



27



27



24*



SD



4



3



3


 



4



Days 12-15



Mean



29 d



29



28



26*



SD



3



3



2



3



Days 15-18



Mean



30 d



30



30



28



SD



3



4



2



4



Days 18-21



Mean



28 d



28



26



27



SD



3



5



5



3



 


No. of animals: 22 for control and 23 for test item treated groups, mean: mean values/grams per day, d=ANOVA + Dunnett-test, * = p<0.05, # = p<0.001

Conclusions:
Under the test conditions, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of CHIMEXANE NB was considered to be 5634 ppm (equivalent to 450 mg/kg bw/day) for maternal toxicity and the No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) of CHIMEXANE NB was considered to be 12519 ppm (equivalent to 1000 mg/kg bw/day) for developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Executive summary:

In a prenatal developmental toxicity study performed according to OECD Guideline 414 and in compliance with GLP, CHIMEXANE NB was administered by dietary admixture to groups of mated female Sprague-Dawley, Rj Han: SD rats (24/dose) at the dose levels of 0, 1878, 5634 and 12519 ppm (equivalent to target dose-levels of 0, 150, 450 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day) from Days 6 to 20 post-coitum. Clinical signs and mortality were checked daily and maternal body weight and food consumption were recorded at designated intervals. On Day 21 post-coitum, the dams were sacrificed and subjected to macroscopic examination. The gravid uterine weight, numbers of implantations, uterine scars, live and dead fetuses, early and late resorptions and corpora lutea were recorded. Fetuses were sexed, weighed and examined for external, soft tissue and skeletal malformations.


 


All mated animals were pregnant except 2/24 control females and 1/24 test item-treated females per group. No deaths and no clinical signs related to treatment with the test item were recorded. The body weight gain and food consumption of animals at 1000 mg/kg bw/day were transiently lower than controls. However, the terminal body weight was not statistically significantly different from controls. None of the litter parameters evaluated were affected and there were no fetal external findings with treatment-relationship in any of the fetuses examined. No findings at visceral or skeletal (including cartilage) fetal examinations were considered to be related to the test item at the concentrations tested.


 


Under the test conditions, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of CHIMEXANE NB was considered to be 5634 ppm (equivalent to 450 mg/kg bw/day) for maternal toxicity and the No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) of CHIMEXANE NB was considered to be 12519 ppm (equivalent to 1000 mg/kg bw/day) for developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:yes

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Pregnancy status:
- All mated animals were pregnant, except 2/24 control females and 1/24 test-item treated females per group, and had live fetuses at term.

Mortality and clinical signs:
- No mortality was observed.
- No clinical signs were observed except cutaneous lesions on the head in one female and misshapen ear in another female were observed at 150 mg/kg bw/day, however these two events were considered fortuitous in origin and unrelated to treatment with the test item.

Body weight and body weight change:
- Lower body weight gain was observed during the first 3 days of treatment in females receiving 1000 mg/kg bw/day when compared to controls (13 g vs. 23 g) and this effect was transient and coincided with the lower food consumption. However, the terminal body weight recorded on Gestation Day (GD) 21 was not statistically significantly different from the control value and the net body weight and the carcass weights did not differ from that of the control group. It could be concluded that the test item affected the body weight gain transiently.
- At 150 and 450 mg/kg bw/day, the body weight gain and the body weight were unaffected by the treatment with the test item.

Food consumption:
- Mean food consumption of females treated at 1000 mg/kg bw/day was lower than controls [21 g vs. 26 g from GD 6 to GD 9 (p<0.001), 24 g vs. 26 g from GD 9 to GD 12 (p<0.05) and 26 g vs. 29 g from GD 12 to GD 15 (p<0.05)] and they were considered to be test item treatment-related.
- At 150 and 450 mg/kg bw/day, the food consumption was considered to have been unaffected by the test item treatment.

Maternal necropsy findings:
- There were no necropsy findings which were attributable to the test item treatment. The single observation recorded concerned one control female with dilated and presence of serous content in the uterus; this animal was not pregnant.

Gravid uterus weight:
- Mean gravid uterus weight of test item-treated females was similar to that of the control group.

Litter data:
- Number of resorptions was similar between the test item-treated groups and the controls.
- No dead fetuses were noticed except one dead fetus at 450 mg/kg bw/day.
- No differences in the mean number of implantation sites and the number of live fetuses between the test item-treated and control groups.
- Sex ratio and mean fetal body weight were similar in the control and the treated groups.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
450 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity
Abnormalities:
no effects observed
Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
External observations:
- Total of 236, 249, 257 and 231 fetuses from the control, 150, 450 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups were examined. Apart from one fetus of the control group with omphalocele and a dead fetus at 450 mg/kg bw/day which was autolyzed, there were no remarkable external findings in any of the fetuses examined.

Soft tissue observations:
- Total of 112, 118, 123 and 110 fetuses from the control, 150, 450 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups were examined.
- Fetal soft tissue variations and malformations observed were randomly distributed within the groups including the control. Furthermore, as the incidence of the observations was very low and/or incidences of variations were within historical background data (dilated renal pelvis or dilated ureter, short or absent innominate artery), they were considered to be unrelated to treatment.

Skeletal and cartilage observations:
- Total of 124, 131, 134 and 121 fetuses from the control, 150, 450 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups were examined.
- As the incidences of skeletal and cartilage variations and malformations were low, recorded with similar frequency among the control and treated groups and in the absence of statistical differences, they were considered to be unrelated to treatment.
Remarks on result:
not determinable due to absence of adverse toxic effects
Abnormalities:
no effects observed
Developmental effects observed:
no

Table 7.8.2/1: Mean achieved dosages (mg/kg bw/day) between gestation Days 6 and 21


 






























Concentration (ppm)



1878



5634



12519



GD 6 to 21



159



464



992



Target dose-levels (mg/kg bw/day)



150



450



1000



(% from target dose-level)



+ 6 %



+ 3 %



- 1 %



 


GD: gestation day


 


Mean achieved dosages increased in a nearly dose-proportional manner and mean values were very close to the targeted dose-levels of 150, 450 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day.


 


Table 7.8.2/2: Body weight and body weight change (g)


 























































Dose-level (mg/kg bw/day)



0



150



450



1000



BW, GD 6



269



267



265



264



BW, GD 21



418



421



414



404



BWG, GD 6-9



23



20



22



13 #



BWG, GD 6-21



+149



+154



+149



+139



Carcass weight



324.8



323.4



314.3



312.3



Net weight change from GD 6



+55.9



+56.6



+49.4



+48.0



 


GD: gestation day, BW: body weight, BWG: body weight gain, #: p<0.001.


 


Table 7.8.2/3: Food consumption


 








































































































Dose-level (mg/kg bw/day)



 



0



150



450



1000



Days 2-6



Mean



23 d



22



23



22



SD



2



3



3



2



Days 6-9



Mean



26 d



25



24



21 #



SD



3



3



3



4



Days 9-12



Mean



26 d



27



27



24*



SD



4



3



3


 



4



Days 12-15



Mean



29 d



29



28



26*



SD



3



3



2



3



Days 15-18



Mean



30 d



30



30



28



SD



3



4



2



4



Days 18-21



Mean



28 d



28



26



27



SD



3



5



5



3



 


No. of animals: 22 for control and 23 for test item treated groups, mean: mean values/grams per day, d=ANOVA + Dunnett-test, * = p<0.05, # = p<0.001

Conclusions:
Under the test conditions, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of CHIMEXANE NB was considered to be 5634 ppm (equivalent to 450 mg/kg bw/day) for maternal toxicity and the No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) of CHIMEXANE NB was considered to be 12519 ppm (equivalent to 1000 mg/kg bw/day) for developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Executive summary:

In a prenatal developmental toxicity study performed according to OECD Guideline 414 and in compliance with GLP, CHIMEXANE NB was administered by dietary admixture to groups of mated female Sprague-Dawley, Rj Han: SD rats (24/dose) at the dose levels of 0, 1878, 5634 and 12519 ppm (equivalent to target dose-levels of 0, 150, 450 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day) from Days 6 to 20 post-coitum. Clinical signs and mortality were checked daily and maternal body weight and food consumption were recorded at designated intervals. On Day 21 post-coitum, the dams were sacrificed and subjected to macroscopic examination. The gravid uterine weight, numbers of implantations, uterine scars, live and dead fetuses, early and late resorptions and corpora lutea were recorded. Fetuses were sexed, weighed and examined for external, soft tissue and skeletal malformations.


 


All mated animals were pregnant except 2/24 control females and 1/24 test item-treated females per group. No deaths and no clinical signs related to treatment with the test item were recorded. The body weight gain and food consumption of animals at 1000 mg/kg bw/day were transiently lower than controls. However, the terminal body weight was not statistically significantly different from controls. None of the litter parameters evaluated were affected and there were no fetal external findings with treatment-relationship in any of the fetuses examined. No findings at visceral or skeletal (including cartilage) fetal examinations were considered to be related to the test item at the concentrations tested.


 


Under the test conditions, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of CHIMEXANE NB was considered to be 5634 ppm (equivalent to 450 mg/kg bw/day) for maternal toxicity and the No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) of CHIMEXANE NB was considered to be 12519 ppm (equivalent to 1000 mg/kg bw/day) for developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Effect on developmental toxicity: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
450 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
GLP study conducted according to OECD guideline 414
Effect on developmental toxicity: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on developmental toxicity: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Additional information

In a prenatal developmental toxicity study performed according to OECD Guideline 414 and in compliance with GLP, CHIMEXANE NB was administered by dietary admixture to groups of mated female Sprague-Dawley,Rj Han: SDrats (24/dose) at the dose levels of 0, 1878, 5634 and 12519 ppm (equivalent to target dose-levels of 0, 150, 450 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day) from Days 6 to 20 post-coitum.


Transient reductions of the body weight gain and food consumption were recorded in dams given 1000 mg/kg/day, without affecting the terminal body weight. No other maternal findings were observed during the study. None of the litter parameters recorded (implantations, live fetuses, percentage of male/female fetuses, fetal body weight) were affected. There were no indications of any treatment-related variations or malformations in fetuses.


Consequently, under the experimental conditions of this study, the dose-level of 450 mg/kg/day was consecutively considered to be the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for maternal toxicity, and 1000 mg/kg/day was considered to be the No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) for developmental toxicity.


 


 

Justification for classification or non-classification

In GLP studies conducted according to OECD guidelines 421 and 414,  no effects on mating, fertility, gestation or delivery and survival and development of the pups were observed.


CHIMEXANE NV is therefore not classified for reproductive and developmental toxicity according to the Annex VI to the Directive 67/548/EEC and the CLP Regulation (EC) N° (1272-2008).

Additional information