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Environmental fate & pathways

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The substance itself does not bioaccumulate. Studying bioaccumulation is not relevant, because the substance is a multi constituent substance consisting of water and dissociating inorganic salts mainly. However, due to the environmentally hazardous properties of the sulfide constituents, bioaccumulation was examined from literature. Based on a weight of evidence approach the highest wet weight based BCF (1.6 L/kg ww, Jahn and Theede, 1997) was selected as reasonable worst case value for bioconcentration. The key value indicates that sulfide has no potential for bioconcentration/bioaccumulation.

Twelve studies were identified on bioconcentration/bioaccumulation of sulfide in aquatic organisms. Of these studies, seven were considered reliable with restrictions (Klimisch 2). All reliable studies were studies on marine aquatic invertebrates. No reliable data were available on freshwater invertebrates and freshwater or marine fish and algae. Wet weight based BCF values for total sulfide varied from virtually zero (no sulfide detectable in the organisms, Laudien et al., 2002) to 1.6 L/kg ww (Jahn and Theede, 1997). Dry weight based BCF values amounted to 7.5 L/kg dw (Jahn et al., 1996). In most studies concentrations of other sulfide species such as thiosulfate, sulfite, sulfate, and elemental sulfur were also monitored in the test organisms. Apparently, sulfide entering the organisms is quickly oxidized to the much less harmful thiosulfate. The available studies demonstrate that sulfide has no potential for bioconcentration/bioaccumulation. Because all reliable studies contained useful information, they were used all together in a weight of evidence approach. The highest wet weight based BCF value of 1.6 (Jahn and Theede, 1997) was selected as key value for bioconcentration. This value originates from a study in which adults of the bivalve species Macoma balthica were exposed for 6 days to a single sulfide concentration of 6.4 mg S2-/L in a 3-day static renewal hypoxic system. The type of tissue analyzed was not specified but most likely represents either whole organisms or soft tissue.