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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods

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Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
22 Apr - 17 Jun 2016
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 222 (Earthworm Reproduction Test (Eisenia fetida/Eisenia andrei))
Version / remarks:
2004
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Remarks:
Sächsiches Staatsministerium für Umwelt und Landwirtschaft, Dresden, Germany
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of mixing into soil (if used): After cooling the test item in a refrigerator for 2 hours at ≤ -18 ºC, the test item was grinded to a fine powder using a grater. It was ensured that not too much force was applied during the grinding to prepare a very fine powder. The grinding procedure was performed in a cooled room at 2-8 °C.
Since the test item is insoluble in water, an exact weighed amount of the test item was mixed thoroughly with finely ground quartz sand, immediately prior to application. This stock mixture (for preparation of all further test item mixtures) was diluted with quartz sand in a way that 10 g of the mixture contained the amount of test item required for one replicate vessel to adjust the selected test item concentration in the test substrate. The treated quartz sand (10 g per replicate) was added to the prepared amount of artificial soil (740 g wet weight) yielding 750 g wet artificial soil (corresponding to 600 g dry weight). The test item mixture was then mixed thoroughly with the artificial soil by intensive stirring in a laboratory mixer at 2-8 °C. Before application the artificial soil was cooled down to 2-8 °C. The cooled soil inhibited melting and agglutinating of the test item powder within the artificial soil during application.

- Controls: yes, artificial soil without addition of test item.
Test organisms (species):
Eisenia fetida
Animal group:
annelids
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: earthworm
- Source: reared under ambient laboratory conditions in the test facility (original breeding of animals was purchased from “W. Neudorff GmbH KG”, Emmerthal, Germany)
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): approx. 3 months old with clitellum, individuals did not differ by more than 4 weeks in age
- Weight at test initiation (mean and range, SD): 316 - 503 mg/worm
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
56 d
Test temperature:
19.2 - 22.0 °C
pH:
test start: 6.02 - 6.06
test end: 5.77 - 5.84
Moisture:
test start: 24.9 - 25.0 (equivalent to 58.9 - 59.1% of WHC)
test end: 24.5 - 25.0 (equivalent to 57.9 - 59.1% of WHC)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (material, size): plastic vessel of Bellaplast with a lid pervious to air and light (inside dimensions: about 16.5 cm x 12 cm x 6 cm)
- Amount of soil or substrate: 750 g wet weight corresponding to 600 g dry weight of artificial soil with a water content corresponding to 40-60 % of WHC
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per control: 8

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Composition (if artificial substrate): 5% sphagnum peat, 20% kaolin clay, 0.3% calcium carbonate, 74.7% industrial quartz sand (type Milisil W3)
- Organic carbon (%): 5%
- Maximum water holding capacity (in % dry weigth): 42.3 g/100 g dry soil

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 h light / 8 h darkness
- Light intensity: artificial light (Lumilux L58W, 540 lux)

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED
- Mortality: after 4 weeks
- Observation of behavioural and pathological symptoms: weekly
- Number of juveniles: after 8 weeks
- Fresh weight of surviving adult earthworms: after 4 weeks

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: no (no vehicle used)

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: control, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg soil dry weight
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Maypon Flow (Carbendazim, SC 500)
Duration:
56 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Duration:
56 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Duration:
56 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: biomass
Details on results:
- Mortality at end of exposure period: 5% after 28 d at the highest test concentration
- Changes in body weight of live adults (% of initial weight) at end of exposure period: 22.5 - 26.2% increase
- No. of offspring produced: 149.5 (control), 155 (62.5 mg/kg dw), 137.5 (125 mg/kg dw), 142.3 (250 mg/kg dw), 149.3 (500 mg/kg dw), 136 (1000 mg/kg dw)
- Morphological abnormalities: Not recorded during the study.
- Behavioural abnormalities: Not recorded during the study.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? yes
- Relevant effect levels: The number of juveniles was reduced by 39 and 96% at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg product/kg soil dry weight (mean number of juveniles = 90 and 6) after 8 weeks of test duration when compared to control (mean number of juveniles = 148).
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Multiple Sequentially-rejective Fisher Test after Bonferroni-Holm for mortality, alpha = 0.05, one-sided greater; Williams-t-test for biomass and reproduction, alpha = 0.05, one-sided smaller.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes

Description of key information

Experimental result: NOEC (56 d) is ≥ 1000 mg/kg soil dw; EC10 and EC50 (56 d) values are > 1000 mg/kg soil dw for reproduction (OECD 222)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

One experimental study is available investigating the effects of UMA 121 on the earthwormEisenia fetidaaccording to OECD 222 under GLP conditions (Friedrich, 2016). The test item was applied to the artificial soil at concentrations of 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg soil dry weight. Due to the limited water solubility the finely ground test item was directly mixed with artificial soil to obtain the desired test concentrations. The total test period was eight weeks. Adult earthworms (approx. 3 months old) were exposed to the test item for four weeks. Surviving adults were removed from the test vessels in order to assess adult mortality. The number of juveniles was recorded after another for weeks at the end of the testing period. In addition any behavioral and pathological symptoms as well as the fresh weight of surviving adult earthworms was assessed. 
UMA 121 had no effects on mortality and biomass of adult earthworms after 28 d and the reproduction (number of juveniles) after 56 d. The NOEC (56 d) is ≥ 1000 mg/kg soil dw and the corresponding EC10 and EC50 (56 d) values are > 1000 mg/kg soil dw for reproduction. For mortality a LC50 (28 d) of > 1000 mg/kg soil dw was derived.