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A cardiac sensitization test was conducted in dogs that were administered adrenaline. The NOAEL was determined to be 0.49%vol. and the LOAEL 1.0%vol. There was good agreement between arterial blood measurements at exposure to the LOAEL level, with 30.6 mg/L being the lowest measured 5-minute arterial blood concentration  This test is a standardized test for halogenated agents used as fire extinguishants and the LOAEL value determined is used as the maximum allowable acute exposure for humans in such standards as NFPA 10,Standard on Portable Extinguishers. The maximum allowable human exposures in standards NFPA 2001,Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems, and ISO 14520,Gaseous Fire-Extinguishing Systems are based on not exceeding the 30.6 mg/L arterial concentration level in PBPK modelling.