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EC number: 272-940-1 | CAS number: 68921-45-9
Study conducted to OECD and EU test guidelines in compliance with GLP. The test material produced 0% (0/20) sensitisation rate and was classified as a non-sensitiser to the guinea pig. Read across to supporting substance, CAS No. 184378 -08 -3, by structural analogue. This approach is deemed appropriate as it supports the human study conducted on the actual substance itself.
This substance has been supported under Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program. The American Chemical Councils RAPA Panel, has derived a “Substituted Diphenylamines” category of chemicals for this substance, please refer to EPA reference 201-14700A located at
Relying on several factors specified in EPA’s guidance document on “Development of Chemical Categories in the HPV Challenge Program,” in which use of chemical categories is encouraged, the following closely related chemicals constitute a chemical category:
Structural Similarity. A key factor supporting the classification of these chemicals as a category is their structural similarity (see Figure 1). All share a common starting material; Diphenylamine (Benzenamine, N-phenyl-, CAS# 122-39-4), a common synthetic pathway, and all compounds in this category are diamines with various substitutions.
Similarity of Physicochemical Properties. The similarity of the physicochemical properties of these materials parallels their structural similarity. All are off-white to light brown solids or viscous liquids intended for use as antioxidants in finished rubber articles or as antidegradant additives that extend the useful life of heavy-duty industrial functional fluids used in high-speed, high-temperature and/or high-load applications. As a class, these amine-based antidegradant compounds are less migratory (more polymer-bound) and less staining than the Substituted p-Phenylenediamine antidegradants. The use of these materials requires that they be stable under high temperatures. Their low volatility is due to their low vapor pressure, highly viscous or solid form. The existing information for these materials indicates that they have low water solubility and high flash points.
Fate and Transport Characteristics. Members of this category have been shown to be not readily biodegradable, so additional testing is not needed. The lack of water solubility of the members of this category makes hydrolysis testing unnecessary. These materials have been shown not to partition to water or air if released into the environment due to their low water solubility and low vapor pressure.
Toxicological Similarity. Review of existing published and unpublished test data for Substituted Diphenylamines shows the aquatic and mammalian toxicity among the materials within this category are similar.
Mammalian Toxicology - Acute. Data on acute mammalian toxicity were reviewed, and the findings indicate a low concern for acute toxicity for all materials. Data are available for most members of the category indicating that the category has been well tested for acute mammalian effects. Therefore, for the purposes of the HPV Program, no
additional acute mammalian toxicity testing is proposed.
Mammalian Toxicology - Mutagenicity. Data from bacterial reverse mutation assays, in vitro and in vivo chromosome aberration studies, as well as additional supporting in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicity studies were reviewed, and the findings indicate a low concern for mutagenicity either for aryl or alkyl substituted materials. Similarly, the data for a mixed aryl/alkyl substituted molecule also indicates a lack of mutagenicity. Data are available for several members of the category or close structural analogs, and these data can be bridged to the other members of the category. Therefore, for the purposes of the HPV Program, the category has been adequately tested for mutagenicity, and no additional mutagenicity testing is proposed.
Mammalian Toxicology – Repeated Dose Toxicity. Data from repeated-dose toxicity studies were reviewed. Sufficient data are not available to adequately represent the Substituted Diphenylamines for the purposes of the HPV Program, and additional testing is proposed on the smallest aryl- and akyl-substituted materials.
Mammalian Toxicology - Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity. Data from reproductive and developmental toxicity studies were reviewed. Sufficient data are not available to adequately represent the Substituted Diphenylamines for the purposes of the HPV Program, and additional testing is proposed, and additional testing is proposed. It is proposed to test the smallest aryl- and akyl-substituted materials.
Conclusion. Based upon the data reviewed in “Substituted Diphenylamines” category of chemicals, the physicochemical and toxicological properties of the Substituted Diphenylamine category members are similar and follow a regular pattern as a result of that structural similarity. Therefore, the definition of a chemical category has been met, and read across is considered appropriate for the category of chemical.
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