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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
18 November 2012 - 25 March 2013
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
GLP study conducted in compliance with OECD Guideline 203 with minor deviations: oxygen concentration in some of the test vessels was observed to have an air saturation value (ASV) in excess of 100 %
Justification for type of information:
Read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
oxygen concentration in some of the test vessels was observed to have an air saturation value (ASV) in excess of 100 %
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No data
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Control and all surviving test groups
- Sampling method: Water samples were taken at 0 (fresh media), 24 (old media), 72 (fresh media) and 96 (old media) h for quantitative analysis. Duplicate samples and samples at 24 (fresh media), 48 (old and fresh media) and 72 (old media) h were taken and stored at approximately -20 °C for further analysis if necessary.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: All samples were stored at approximately -20 °C prior to analysis.
Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: An excess (50 mg/L) of test item was dissolved in test medium using a propeller stirrer at approximately 1500 rpm for 24 h. After the stirring period any undissolved test item was removed by filtration (0.2 μm Sartorius Sartopore filter, first approximate 2 L discarded in order to pre-condition the filter) to produce a 100 % v/v saturated solution of the test item from which dilutions were prepared to give the required test concentrations.
- Controls: Control group was maintained under identical conditions but not exposed to the test item.
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Rainbow trout
- Source: Brow Well Fisheries Limited, Hebden, Yorkshire, UK
- Age at study initiation: Juvenile
- Length at study initiation (mean and SD): 4.4 ± 0.2 cm
- Weight at study initiation (mean and SD): 1.09 ± 0.16 g
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 10 days
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): Same as test
- Type and amount of food: Commercial trout pellets
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): No mortality observed
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
No
Hardness:
140 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
14-15 °C
pH:
7.9-8.4
Dissolved oxygen:
9.2-11.4 mg O2/L (= 89-109 % Air Saturation Value)
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 1.0, 1.8, 3.2, 5.6 and 10 mg/L (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Glass exposure vessels (20 L)
- Type: Vessels were covered to reduce evaporation and maintained at 14-15 °C in a temperature controlled room.
- Aeration: Vessels were aerated via narrow bore glass tubes.
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency): Daily
- No. of organisms per vessel: Seven
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): One
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): One
- Biomass loading rate: 1.54 g bw/L

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Dechlorinated tap water
- Culture medium same as test medium: Yes
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Oxygen and pH were measured daily using a Hach HQ30d Flexi handheld meter and the temperature was recorded daily using a Hanna Instruments HI 93510 digital thermometer.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: No
- Photoperiod: 16 h light and 8 h darkness cycle with 20 minute dawn and dusk transition periods

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): Any mortalities and sub-lethal effects of exposure were recorded at 3, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after the start of exposure. The criteria of death were taken to be the absence of both respiratory movement and response to physical stimulation.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: ca. 1.8
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations:
Initial range-finding test: 0, 1.0, 10 and 100 % v/v saturated solution
Initial experiment: 0 and 10 % v/v saturated solution
Second range-finding test: 0 and 1 % v/v saturated solution
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: In the initial range-finding test, mortalities at 1.0, 10 and 100 % v/v saturated solution were 0, 0 and 100 %, respectively. In the initial experiment, 100 % mortality was seen at 10 % v/v saturated solution and in the second-range finding test, no mortality was recorded at 1 % v/v saturated solution.
Inconstancies were seen in the 10 % v/v saturated solution test concentration throughout the different tests. It was suggested by the author that this might have been due to slightly different levels of test item being in solution, as is common with a saturated solution method of preparation.
Based on this information test concentrations of 1.0, 1.8, 3.2, 5.6 and 10 % v/v saturated solution were selected for the definitive test.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 2.1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
ca. 0.67 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: No sub-lethal effects of exposure were observed in the test.
- Mortality of control: No mortality
- Throughout the duration of the test the test preparations were observed to be clear colourless solutions.
- Refer table 6.1.1/2 for more details
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
No data
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Table 6.1.1/2: Cumulative mortality data in the definitive test

 

Nominal Concentration

(% v/v Saturated Solution)

Cumulative Mortality

(Initial Population = 7)

% Mortality

3 h

6 h

24 h

48 h

72 h

96 h

96 h

Control

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.8

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3.2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5.6

0

0

0

0

1

1

14

10

0

0

0

1

1

1

14

 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
mortality in control was 0 %; semi-static test conditions; oxygen content was ≥ 60 % ASV in the control and test vessels throughout the test; results were based on measured concentrations
Conclusions:
Under the test conditions, the 96 h LC50 for read across substance zinc monomethacrylate to the freshwater fish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined to be greater than 2.1 mg/L, based on the mean measured test concentrations. The No Observed Effect Concentration was 0.67 mg/L. Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.
Executive summary:

An acute aquatic toxicity study was performed in accordance with GLP and OECD Guideline 203. Following preliminary range-finding tests and an initial experiment, rainbow trout fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed, in groups of seven, to an aqueous solution of the read across substance zinc monomethacrylate, over a range of concentrations of 1.0, 1.8, 3.2, 5.6 and 10 % v/v saturated solution for a period of 96 h at a temperature of 14-15 °C under semi-static test conditions. The test item solution was prepared by stirring an excess (50 mg/L) of test item in test medium using a propeller stirrer at approximately 1500 rpm for 24 h. After the stirring period any undissolved test item was removed by filtration (0.2 μm Sartorius Sartopore filter, first approximate 2 L discarded in order to pre-condition the filter) to produce a 100 % v/v saturated solution of the test item from which dilutions were prepared to give the required test concentrations. The number of mortalities and any sub-lethal effects of exposure in each test and control vessel were determined at 3, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after the start of exposure. Cumulative mortalities at 96 h were 0, 0, 0, 0, 14 and 14 % at 0, 1.0, 1.8, 3.2, 5.6 and 10 % v/v saturated solutions, respectively. Chemical analysis of the freshly prepared test media at 0 and 72 h and of the old or expired test media at 24 and 96 h showed measured test concentrations to range from 0.18 to 2.1 mg/L. Given this, it was considered appropriate to base the results on the mean measured test concentrations. Under the test conditions, the 96 h LC50 for read across substance zinc monomethacrylate to the freshwater fish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined to be greater than 2.1 mg/L, based on the mean measured test concentrations. The No Observed Effect Concentration was 0.67 mg/L (Harris, 2013). Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1998
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
Read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
not specified
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations were determined in the freshly prepared test media and in the same media after 24 h, just before replacement.
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
No data
Test organisms (species):
Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Zebra fish
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
No data
Hardness:
No data
Test temperature:
No data
pH:
No data
Dissolved oxygen:
No data
Salinity:
No data
Nominal and measured concentrations:
No data
Details on test conditions:
No data
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
ca. 56 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Details on results:
- Based on nominal concentration of substance: LC50 (96 h) = 100 mg/L and NOEC (96 h) = 56 mg/L
- Based on measured concentration of zinc cation in zinc chloride: LC50 (96 h) = 23.1 mg/L and NOEC (96 h) = 12.9 mg/L
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No data
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 value and 95 % confidence interval for survival were calculated by means of a parametric model developed by Kooijman (1981) or, if too few concentrations showed partial mortality, by assuming a log-logistic dose-effect relation (van der Hoeven, 1991).
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

None

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Under the test conditions, the 96 h LC50 and NOEC values for read across substance zinc lactate to zebra fish are 100 and 56 mg/L, respectively, based on nominal concentrations. The 96 h LC50 and NOEC values for zinc cation in zinc chloride are 23.1 and 12.9 mg/L, respectively, based on measured concentration of zinc metal. Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.
Executive summary:

In an acute aquatic toxicity study, performed in accordance with GLP and OECD Guideline 203, groups of zebra fish (B. rerio) were exposed to read across substance zinc lactate at different concentrations for 96 h under semi-static conditions. The toxicity of read across substance zinc lactate was determined simultaneously with zinc chloride. Under the test conditions, the 96 h LC50 and NOEC values for read across substance zinc lactate to zebra fish are 100 and 56 mg/L, respectively, based on nominal concentrations. The 96 h LC50 and NOEC values for zinc cation in zinc chloride are 23.1 and 12.9 mg/L, respectively, based on measured concentration of zinc metal (Bowmer, 1998). Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1990
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Similar to standard data but with some information missing (test material concentrations, raw data on control, O2 concentrations, no confidential interval for results)
Justification for type of information:
Read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
other: American Society for testing matrials 1988: Standard practice for conducting acute toxicity tests with fishes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians, ASTM, E-729-88, Philadelphia
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: Groups of alevin, fry and juveniles fish were exposed to zinc chloride in static test systems and LC50 (96 h) values were calculated (American Society for Testing and Materials, 1988).
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
Not applicable
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Test solutions were formulated by either pipetting appropriate aliquants of stock solution prepared in deionized water or adding the appropriate amounts of the compound directly to the test vessel.
Test organisms (species):
other: Thymallus arclicus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Arctic grayling
- Source: Eyed eggs were obtained from Alaska (Clear State Hatchery, Clear, Alaska) in 1985 and Montana (Flathead Lake Salmon State Hatchery, Somers, Montana) in 1986, 1987 and 1988.
- Life-stage at study initiation: Alevin, fry and juveniles (7-12 weeks)
- Mean weight (juveniles): 0.20, 0.34, 0.85, 0.97 and 1.85 g
- Length (juveniles): 31-67 mm
- Method of breeding: Eggs were hatched in a vertical flow incubator, and the resulting fry were cultured in fiberglass troughs and juveniles in circular tanks.
- Feeding: Fry were fed a krill-based commercial salmon diet (Bioproducts, Inc., Warrenton, OR) supplemented with live nauplii of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.), and juveniles were fed a standard commercial salmon diet (Bioproducts, Inc., Warrenton, OR).

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 24 h
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
No data
Hardness:
41.3 (40.0-43.0) mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
12 ± 1 °C
pH:
7.1-8.0
Dissolved oxygen:
No data
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Six to eight concentrations and a control; values not reported
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 3.8 L glass jars containing 3 L of test solution (alevins and fry); 19.6 L glass jars containing 15 L of test solution (juveniles)
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Standardized reconstituted soft water (USEPA, 1975)
- Alkalinity: 30.9 (30.0-32.0) mg/L as CaCO3
- Conductivity: 158 (143-179) µmhos/cm at 25 °C

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality and abnormal behavioural responses were recorded at 24 h intervals.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 315 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: at fry-stage (series 1): 95 % CL: 234-424
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 1 580 - ca. 2 920 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: at alevin stage: series 2: 1580 (900-2770) µg/L; series 3: 2920 (2510-3400) µg/L
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 112 - ca. 168 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: at juvenile stage: series 1: 142 (114-178) µg/L (wt. 0.20 g); 112 (83-150) µg/L (wt. 0.34 g); series 2: 166 (127-217) µg/L (wt. 0.85 g); series 3: 168 (143-197) µg/L (wt. 0.97 g); 168 (96-295) µg/L (wt. 1.85 g)
Details on results:
The LC50 (96 h) values in different series of tests were:
- Series 1: 315 (234-424) µg/L (fry); 142 (114-178) µg/L (juvenile, 0.20 g); 112 (83-150) µg/L (juvenile, 0.34 g)
- Series 2: 1580 (900-2770) µg/L (alevin); 166 (127-217) µg/L (juvenile, 0.85 g)
- Series 3: 2920 (2510-3400) µg/L (alevin); 168 (143-197) µg/L (juvenile, 0.97 g); 168 (96-295) µg/L (juvenile, 1.85 g)
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
- The method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon (1949) was used to calculate the LC50 values and 95 % confidence intervals. Significant differences between LC50 values were determined by the standard error of difference as described by Sprague and Fogels (1977) and Zar (1974).
- For repeated tests, the geometric mean of the LC50 values (if not significantly different) with the lowest and highest confidence intervals of the combined tests was used for statistical comparison.
- The methods used to analyze the joint toxic effects of the mixtures were the toxic unit concept of Sprague (1970) and the additive index of Marking (1977).
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

None

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Under the test conditions, the LC50 (96 h) values of read across substance zinc chloride in arctic grayling in different series of tests were:
- Series 1: 315 (234-424) µg/L (fry); 142 (114-178) µg/L (juvenile, 0.20 g); 112 (83-150) µg/L (juvenile, 0.34 g)
- Series 2: 1580 (900-2770) µg/L (alevin); 166 (127-217) µg/L (juvenile, 0.85 g)
- Series 3: 2920 (2510-3400) µg/L (alevin); 168 (143-197) µg/L (juvenile, 0.97 g); 168 (96-295) µg/L (juvenile, 1.85 g)
Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.
Executive summary:

In an acute aquatic toxicity study, groups (10/concentration) of arctic grayling (Thymallus arclicus) were exposed to read across substance zinc chloride for 96 h under static test system. Acute tests were run in different series:

- Series 1 (fish obtained from Alaska in 1985): One test was conducted on fry and two tests were conducted on juveniles with mean weight of 0.20 and 0.34 g

- Series 2 (fish obtained from Montana in 1986): One test was conducted on alevin and one test was conducted on juveniles with mean weight of 0.85 g

- Series 3 (fish obtained from Montana in 1988): One test was conducted on alevin and two tests were conducted on juveniles with mean weight of 0.97 and 1.85 g 

 

 Under the test conditions, the LC50 (96 h) values in different series of tests were:

- Series 1: 315 (234-424) µg/L (fry); 142 (114-178) µg/L (juvenile, 0.20 g); 112 (83-150) µg/L (juvenile, 0.34 g)

- Series 2: 1580 (900-2770) µg/L (alevin); 166 (127-217) µg/L (juvenile, 0.85 g)

- Series 3: 2920 (2510-3400) µg/L (alevin); 168 (143-197) µg/L (juvenile, 0.97 g); 168 (96-295) µg/L (juvenile, 1.85 g) (Buhl, 1990a)

Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1990
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Similar to standard data but with some information missing (test material concentrations, raw data on control, O2 concentrations, no confidential interval for results)
Justification for type of information:
Read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
other: American Society for testing matrials 1988: Standard practice for conducting acute toxicity tests with fishes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians, ASTM, E-729-88, Philadelphia
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: Groups of alevin and juveniles fish were exposed to zinc chloride in static test systems and LC50 (96 h) values were calculated (American Society for Testing and Materials, 1988).
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
Not applicable
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Test solutions were formulated by either pipetting appropriate aliquants of stock solution prepared in deionized water or adding the appropriate amounts of the compound directly to the test vessel.
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Coho salmon
- Source: Eyed eggs were obtained from Washington (Puyallup Salmon Hatchery, Orting, Washington) in 1985 and juveniles from Alaska (Clear State Hatchery, Clear, Alaska) in 1987.
- Life-stage at study initiation: Alevin and juveniles (10-22 weeks)
- Mean weight (juveniles): 0.47, 0.63 and 0.94 g
- Length (juveniles): 31-67 mm
- Method of breeding: Eggs were hatched in a vertical flow incubator, and the resulting fry were cultured in fiberglass troughs and juveniles in circular tanks.
- Feeding: Juveniles were fed a standard commercial salmon diet (Bioproducts, Inc., Warrenton, OR).

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 24 h (alevin); 3 weeks (juvenile)
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
No data
Hardness:
41.3 (40.0-43.0) mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
12 ± 1 °C
pH:
7.1-8.0
Dissolved oxygen:
No data
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Six to eight concentrations and a control; values not reported
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 3.8 L glass jars containing 3 L of test solution (alevins); 19.6 L glass jars containing 15 L of test solution (juveniles)
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Standardized reconstituted soft water (USEPA, 1975)
- Alkalinity: 30.9 (30.0-32.0) mg/L as CaCO3
- Conductivity: 158 (143-179) µmhos/cm at 25 °C

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality and abnormal behavioural responses were recorded at 24 h intervals.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 820 - ca. 1 810 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: at juvenile stage: series 1: 820 (610-1130) µg/L (wt. 0.47 g); 1810 (1340-2450) µg/L (wt. 0.63 g); 1650 (1050-2600) µg/L (wt. 0.94 g)
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 727 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: at alevin stage: series 2: 95 % CL = 507-1042
Details on results:
The LC50 (96 h) values in different series of tests were:
- Series 1: 820 (610-1130) µg/L (juvenile, 0.47 g); 1810 (1340-2450) µg/L (juvenile, 0.63 g); 1650 (1050-2600) µg/L (juvenile, 0.94 g)
- Series 2: 727 (507-1042) µg/L (alevin)
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
- The method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon (1949) was used to calculate the LC50 values and 95 % confidence intervals. Significant differences between LC50 values were determined by the standard error of difference as described by Sprague and Fogels (1977) and Zar (1974).
- For repeated tests, the geometric mean of the LC50 values (if not significantly different) with the lowest and highest confidence intervals of the combined tests was used for statistical comparison.
- The methods used to analyze the joint toxic effects of the mixtures were the toxic unit concept of Sprague (1970) and the additive index of Marking (1977).
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

None

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Under the test conditions, the LC50 (96 h) values of read across substance zinc chloride to coho salmon in different series of tests were:
- Series 1: 820 (610-1130) µg/L (juvenile, 0.47 g); 1810 (1340-2450) µg/L (juvenile, 0.63 g); 1650 (1050-2600) µg/L (juvenile, 0.94 g)
- Series 2: 727 (507-1042) µg/L (alevin)
Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.
Executive summary:

In an acute aquatic toxicity study, groups (10/concentration) of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were exposed to read across substance zinc chloride for 96 h under static test system. Acute tests were run in different series:

- Series 1 (fish obtained from Alaska in 1985): Three tests were conducted on juveniles with mean weight of 0.47, 0.63 and 0.94 g

- Series 2 (fish obtained from Washington in 1987): One test was conducted on alevin

 

Under the test conditions, the LC50 (96 h) values in different series of tests were:

- Series 1: 820 (610-1130) µg/L (juvenile, 0.47 g); 1810 (1340-2450) µg/L (juvenile, 0.63 g); 1650 (1050-2600) µg/L (juvenile, 0.94 g)

- Series 2: 727 (507-1042) µg/L (alevin) (Buhl, 1990b)

Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1990
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Similar to standard data but with some information missing (test material concentrations, raw data on control, O2 concentrations, no confidential interval for results)
Justification for type of information:
Read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
other: American Society for testing matrials 1988: Standard practice for conducting acute toxicity tests with fishes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians, ASTM, E-729-88, Philadelphia
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: Groups of alevin and juveniles fish were exposed to zinc chloride in static test systems and LC50 (96 h) values were calculated (American Society for Testing and Materials, 1988)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
Not applicable
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Test solutions were formulated by either pipetting appropriate aliquants of stock solution prepared in deionized water or adding the appropriate amounts of the compound directly to the test vessel.
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Rainbow trout
- Source: Eyed eggs were obtained from Montana (Ennis National Fish, Hatchery, Ennis, Montana) in 1986.
- Life-stage at study initiation: Alevin and juveniles
- Mean weight (juveniles): 0.60 g
- Length (juveniles): 31-67 mm
- Age (juveniles): 7-10 weeks
- Method of breeding: Eggs were hatched in a vertical flow incubator, and the resulting fry were cultured in fiberglass troughs and juveniles in circular tanks.
- Feeding: Juveniles were fed a standard commercial salmon diet (Bioproducts, Inc., Warrenton, OR).

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 24 h
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
No data
Hardness:
41.3 (40.0-43.0) mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
12 ± 1 °C
pH:
7.1-8.0
Dissolved oxygen:
No data
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Six to eight concentrations and a control; values not reported
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 3.8 L glass jars containing 3 L of test solution (alevins); 19.6 L glass jars containing 15 L of test solution (juveniles)
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Standardized reconstituted soft water (USEPA, 1975)
- Alkalinity: 30.9 (30.0-32.0) mg/L as CaCO3
- Conductivity: 158 (143-179) µmhos/cm at 25 °C

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality and abnormal behavioural responses were recorded at 24 h intervals.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 2 170 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: at alevin stage: 95 % CL = 1850-2550
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 169 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: at juvenile state: 95 % CL = 118-243
Details on results:
The LC50 (96 h) values at alevin and juvenile stages were 2170 (1850-2550) and 169 (118-243) µg/L, respectively.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
- The method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon (1949) was used to calculate the LC50 values and 95 % confidence intervals. Significant differences between LC50 values were determined by the standard error of difference as described by Sprague and Fogels (1977) and Zar (1974).
- For repeated tests, the geometric mean of the LC50 values (if not significantly different) with the lowest and highest confidence intervals of the combined tests was used for statistical comparison.
- The methods used to analyze the joint toxic effects of the mixtures were the toxic unit concept of Sprague (1970) and the additive index of Marking (1977).
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

None

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Under the test conditions, the LC50 (96 h) values of read across substance zinc chloride to Rainbow trout at alevin and juvenile stages were determined to be 2170 (1850-2550) and 169 (118-243) µg/L, respectively. Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.
Executive summary:

In an acute aquatic toxicity study, groups (10/concentration) of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at alevin and juvenile stages were exposed to read across substance zinc chloride for 96 h under static test system. Under the test conditions, the LC50 (96 h) values at alevin and juvenile stages were determined to be 2170 (1850-2550) and 169 (118-243) µg/L, respectively (Buhl, 1990c). Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1993
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Remarks:
No data on purity or source of test item; test type not specified; no data on nominal or measured test concentrations; no. of fish/vessel was 5; ranges of data for hardness, temperature and mortality in control group were different from the OECD guideline recommended ranges; no details on result, only LC50 was given (range and mean)
Justification for type of information:
Read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: Groups of fish were exposed to zinc sulphate for 96 h at pH 6-6.5, 7-7.5 and 8-8.5 and LC50 values were calculated.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No data
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
No data
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solutions were prepared in Millipore® (Milli-Q Corp., Bedford, MA) water.
- Controls: Blank very hard reconstituted water samples were pH adjusted and tested for toxicity to measure the effects of pH adjustments alone on sample toxicity. In all cases, blank mortality was ≤ 20 % .
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Fathead minnow
- Source: Cultured at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) laboratory in Duluth, Minnesota
- Age at study initiation: ≤ 24 h
- Feeding during test: No
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
No data
Hardness:
280-300 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
25 °C
pH:
6.0-6.5, 7.0-7.5 and 8.0-8.5
Dissolved oxygen:
Never below 5 mg/L (60 % saturation)
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
No data
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 30 mL aliquots at each concentration were dispensed into 30 mL polystyrene cups and sealed with 35 mm polystyrene culture dish bottoms as lids to prevent headspace gas exchange. Vessels at pH 8.25 were not sealed.
- No. of organisms per vessel: Five
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): Duplicate or triplicate

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Very hard reconstituted water (VHRW)
- Alkalinity: 225-245 mg/L as CaCO3

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Yes, adjusted to the desired test pH (6.25 and 7.25, with 8.25 remaining unadjusted) using analytical-grade HCl
- pH values were measured at termination using a Beckman Instruments (Fullerton, CA) model 70 pH meter equipped with a Beckman KCI-filled probe.
- Photoperiod: 16 h light and 8 h dark cycle
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 780 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
other: total metal concentrations
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95 % CL = 560-1100, at pH 6-6.5
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 330 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
other: total metal concentrations
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95 % CL = 230-480; at pH 7-7.5
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 500 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
other: total metal concentrations
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95 % CL = 260-960; at pH 8-8.5
Details on results:
- LC50 (96 h) values at pH 6-6.5, 7-7.5 and 8-8.5 were 780 (560-1100), 330 (230-480) and 500 (260-960) µg/L, respectively.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and corresponding 95 % CI were calculated using the trimmed Spearman-Karber method.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

None

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Under the test conditions, the LC50 (96 h) values of read across substance zinc sulphate to Pimephales promelas at pH 6-6.5, 7-7.5 and 8-8.5 were 780 (560-1100), 330 (230-480) and 500 (260-960) µg/L, respectively. Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.
Executive summary:

In an acute aquatic toxicity study, groups (2 or 3 replicates of 5 fish/vessel) of Pimephales promelas were exposed to read across substance zinc sulphate at different concentrations for 96 h at pH 6-6.5, 7-7.5 and 8-8.5. Median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and corresponding 95 % CI were calculated using the trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Mortality in blank control was ≤ 20 %. Dissolved O2 concentrations during the test were never below 5 mg/L (60 % saturation). Measured concentrations of the test substance during the test were within 10 % of the nominal concentration. Under the test conditions, the LC50 (96 h) values of read across substance zinc sulphate to Pimephales promelas at pH 6-6.5, 7-7.5 and 8-8.5 were 780 (560-1100), 330 (230-480) and 500 (260-960) µg/L, respectively (Schubauer-Berrigan, 1993). Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.

Description of key information

The substance exhibits a LC50 for freshwater fish of 96.73 mg/L.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water fish

Fresh water fish
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect concentration:
ca. 96.73 mg/L

Additional information

The ecotoxicological dataset for the submission substance is very limited; therefore identification of one or more appropriate read-across substance is required in order to address the REACh data requirements. The submission substance is an organo-zinc substance, which has been demonstrated to rapidly dissolve in standard aqueous medium. Thus, readily soluble zinc-containing substances were thought as appropriate source substance. There is a great array of data that deals with the ecotoxicological properties of soluble zinc compound and dissolved zinc. Selected candidates were zinc chloride, zinc sulphate and zinc lactate. The last one is the preferred candidate as the counter ion is readily biodegradable organic and the total zinc amount is similar to the submission substance. Therefore, a key value for chemical safety assessment is derived by molecular weight correction of ecotoxicity data from zinc lactate.

In an acute aquatic toxicity study, performed in accordance with GLP and OECD Guideline 203, groups of zebra fish (B. rerio) were exposed to read across substance zinc lactate at different concentrations for 96 h under semi-static conditions. The toxicity of read across substance zinc lactate was determined simultaneously with zinc chloride. Under the test conditions, the 96 h LC50 and NOEC values for read across substance zinc lactate to zebra fish are 100 and 56 mg/L, respectively, based on nominal concentrations. The 96 h LC50 and NOEC values for zinc cation in zinc chloride are 23.1 and 12.9 mg/L, respectively, based on measured concentration of zinc metal (Bowmer, 1998). Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.

In an acute aquatic toxicity study, groups (10/concentration) of arctic grayling (Thymallus arclicus) were exposed to read across substance zinc chloride for 96 h under static test system. Acute tests were run in different series:

- Series 1 (fish obtained from Alaska in 1985): One test was conducted on fry and two tests were conducted on juveniles with mean weight of 0.20 and 0.34 g

- Series 2 (fish obtained from Montana in 1986): One test was conducted on alevin and one test was conducted on juveniles with mean weight of 0.85 g

- Series 3 (fish obtained from Montana in 1988): One test was conducted on alevin and two tests were conducted on juveniles with mean weight of 0.97 and 1.85 g 

 

 Under the test conditions, the LC50 (96 h) values in different series of tests were:

- Series 1: 315 (234-424) µg/L (fry); 142 (114-178) µg/L (juvenile, 0.20 g); 112 (83-150) µg/L (juvenile, 0.34 g)

- Series 2: 1580 (900-2770) µg/L (alevin); 166 (127-217) µg/L (juvenile, 0.85 g)

- Series 3: 2920 (2510-3400) µg/L (alevin); 168 (143-197) µg/L (juvenile, 0.97 g); 168 (96-295) µg/L (juvenile, 1.85 g) (Buhl, 1990a)

Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.

In an acute aquatic toxicity study, groups (10/concentration) of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were exposed to read across substance zinc chloride for 96 h under static test system. Acute tests were run in different series:

- Series 1 (fish obtained from Alaska in 1985): Three tests were conducted on juveniles with mean weight of 0.47, 0.63 and 0.94 g

- Series 2 (fish obtained from Washington in 1987): One test was conducted on alevin

 

Under the test conditions, the LC50 (96 h) values in different series of tests were:

- Series 1: 820 (610-1130) µg/L (juvenile, 0.47 g); 1810 (1340-2450) µg/L (juvenile, 0.63 g); 1650 (1050-2600) µg/L (juvenile, 0.94 g)

- Series 2: 727 (507-1042) µg/L (alevin) (Buhl, 1990b)

Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.

In an acute aquatic toxicity study, groups (10/concentration) of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at alevin and juvenile stages were exposed to read across substance zinc chloride for 96 h under static test system. Under the test conditions, the LC50 (96 h) values at alevin and juvenile stages were determined to be 2170 (1850-2550) and 169 (118-243) µg/L, respectively (Buhl, 1990c). Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.

In an acute aquatic toxicity study, groups (2 or 3 replicates of 5 fish/vessel) of Pimephales promelas were exposed to read across substance zinc sulphate at different concentrations for 96 h at pH 6-6.5, 7-7.5 and 8-8.5. Median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and corresponding 95 % CI were calculated using the trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Mortality in blank control was ≤ 20 %. Dissolved O2 concentrations during the test were never below 5 mg/L (60 % saturation). Measured concentrations of the test substance during the test were within 10 % of the nominal concentration. Under the test conditions, the LC50 (96 h) values of read across substance zinc sulphate to Pimephales promelas at pH 6-6.5, 7-7.5 and 8-8.5 were 780 (560-1100), 330 (230-480) and 500 (260-960) µg/L, respectively (Schubauer-Berrigan, 1993). Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.

An acute aquatic toxicity study was performed in accordance with GLP and OECD Guideline 203. Following preliminary range-finding tests and an initial experiment, rainbow trout fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed, in groups of seven, to an aqueous solution of the read across substance zinc monomethacrylate, over a range of concentrations of 1.0, 1.8, 3.2, 5.6 and 10 % v/v saturated solution for a period of 96 h at a temperature of 14-15 °C under semi-static test conditions. The test item solution was prepared by stirring an excess (50 mg/L) of test item in test medium using a propeller stirrer at approximately 1500 rpm for 24 h. After the stirring period any undissolved test item was removed by filtration (0.2 μm Sartorius Sartopore filter, first approximate 2 L discarded in order to pre-condition the filter) to produce a 100 % v/v saturated solution of the test item from which dilutions were prepared to give the required test concentrations. The number of mortalities and any sub-lethal effects of exposure in each test and control vessel were determined at 3, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after the start of exposure. Cumulative mortalities at 96 h were 0, 0, 0, 0, 14 and 14 % at 0, 1.0, 1.8, 3.2, 5.6 and 10 % v/v saturated solutions, respectively. Chemical analysis of the freshly prepared test media at 0 and 72 h and of the old or expired test media at 24 and 96 h showed measured test concentrations to range from 0.18 to 2.1 mg/L. Given this, it was considered appropriate to base the results on the mean measured test concentrations. Under the test conditions, the 96 h LC50 for read across substance zinc monomethacrylate to the freshwater fish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined to be greater than 2.1 mg/L, based on the mean measured test concentrations. The No Observed Effect Concentration was 0.67 mg/L (Harris, 2013). Similar results can be expected for zinc dimethacrylate.