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Environmental fate & pathways

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Environmental Fate

It should be noted that the test substance is not considered as posing a hazard to the aquatic environment.

The test substance, Reactive Red 230, is a solid under all environmental conditions and is highly soluble in water.It has a low volatility (based on the high melting / boiling point and high molecular weight)and a low affinity for soil / sediment (based on the partition coefficient value of Log Kow -2.93). As such, any environmental release will result in virtually all of the substance compartmentalising into water compartments, with little release directly to atmosphere or compartmentalising to soil/sediment compartments.

Any potential exposure to the environment is predicted to result in rapid redistribution to water; due to its low volatility, high water solubility and partitioning values indicates that the majority of the substance would eventually partition to water rather than to soil and sediment should it be released to the environment.

A Level III fugacity model was conducted in the US EPA EPISUITE which assumes steady-state but not equilibrium conditions. The Level III model in EPI Suite predicts partitioning between air, soil, sediment and water using a combination of default parameters and various input parameters. This model has been used to calculate the theoretical distribution of the highest % component substance between four environmental compartments (air, water, soil, sediment) at steady state in a unit world.

Partitioning is detailed to be:

-Air                 0.0133%

-Water          0.667%

-Soil              41.6%

-Sediment       57.7%

It is proposed that although the majority of the substance distributes to the soil and sedimentcompartmentswithin the model, the high solubility in water indicates that the substance is more likely to distribute to water – e.g. soil pore water. Reactive Red 230 displays a low biodegradability in an inherent biodegradability modified Zahn-Wellens test, indicating that it is unlikely to achieve a half life of less than 40 or 60 days within fresh water attributed to ready biodegradation alone. However, the substance is degraded by hydrolysis at environmentally relevant pH’s as can be derived from the read across from structural analogues which have a half-life time of 6 to 12 days at pH 7 and 25°C indicating the potential for significant removal by hydrolysis. Studies on direct phototransformation in water are not available but it is assumed on the basis of chemical structure and nature of use that the substance is not degraded by direct photolysis. It is concluded, therefore, that abiotic processes would contribute significantly to the depletion of the substance within the environment.

Reactive Red 230 has a measured log Kow of -2.93. This value indicates that possible bioaccumulation in the food chain is not anticipated. Given the fact that the substance is subject to hydrolysis at biologically relevant pH’s (9), it is anticipated that bioaccumulation of the substance itself would not occur, as hydrolytic effects in association with metabolic effects would result in removal of the substance.

Adsorption to soil is deemed to be low, based on the low partition coefficient value and the extremely good water solubility. Such a low potential indicates that the substance is unlikely to bind tightly to soils and sediments and instead partition almost exclusively to water. As such, significant exposure related effects to sediment and soil dwelling organisms are considered to be negligible.

Based on its high water solubility, low partition coefficient and fairly rapid hydrolysis rate at environmentally relevant pH’s, it can be concluded that it is unlikely that Reactive Red 230 could potentially be persistent within the environment. Abiotic effects within the environment will result in eventual removal from the environment and hence significant contact with the organisms in the food chain can considered to be minimised.

Finally, Reactive Red 230 demonstrates low acute toxicity in mammalian studies therefore in the event of exposure to environmental organisms, effects due to secondary poisoning can be excluded.

 

Reliability.

The majority of studies have all been ranked reliability 1 or 2 according to the Klimisch et al system. This ranking was deemed appropriate because the studies were all conducted in compliance with recognised guidelines and or to GLP.

 

Justification for classification or non classification

The above results triggered no classification under the Dangerous Substance Directive (67/548/EEC) and the CLP Regulation (EC No 1272/2008).

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