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Toxicity to aquatic plants other than algae

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Studies of the reed Phragmites australis reported no effects in long term tests (4 months to 2 years) ranging from 0.7 to 4 mg-B/L (Guhl 1992a, Bergman et al. 1995, Guhl 2000). Although these studies can be considered reliable, the lack of an exposure showing adverse effects (ie a LOEC) precludes their results from being described as NOEC values. Guhl (1992a) uses the term “concentration without effect” to describe the endpoint where no effect was observed at the highest (or only) concentration tested.