Registration Dossier

Diss Factsheets

Administrative data

Description of key information

Skin Irritation

Not irritating to the skin

Ocular Irritation

Not irritating to eyes

Respiratory Irritation

No studies were located to indicate that Hydrocarbons, C11-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics is a respiratory irritant.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Skin irritation / corrosion

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
skin irritation: in vitro / ex vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
21-Jul-2014 to 28-Jul-2014
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Remarks:
The study has been performed according to OECD and/or EC guidelines and according to GLP principles.
Justification for type of information:
The hypothesis for the analogue approach is that the test substance, Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics, contains constituents which are part of the same homologous series as the constituents of the target substance, Hydrocarbons, C11-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics. The two substances have some constituents in common and contain no functional groups that are structural alerts for skin sensitisation. The substances therefore have qualitatively similar properties (RAAF Scenario 2 applies). A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method B.46 (In Vitro Skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Epidermis Model Test)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 439 (In Vitro Skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Epidermis Test Method)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Amount / concentration applied:
TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 25 µl

NEGATIVE CONTOL:
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 10 µl Phosphate buffered saline

POSITIVE CONTROL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 10 µl
- Concentration (if solution): 5% (aq) Sodium dodecyl sulphate
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Exposure:15 minutes
Post incubation period: 42 hours
Details on study design:
TEST SITE
- Area of exposure: human epidermis model
- % coverage: 0.38 cm2

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing (if done): phosphate buffered saline
- Time after start of exposure: 15 minutes

POST INCUBATION PERIOD
- 42 hours

SCORING SYSTEM:
- After a 42 hour incubation period, determination of the cytotoxic (irritancy) effect was performed. Cytotoxicity is expressed as the reduction of mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity measured by formazan production from MTT at the end of the treatment. Cell viability was calculated for each tissue as a percentage of the mean of the negative control tissues.
Irritation / corrosion parameter:
% tissue viability
Run / experiment:
Time point: 15 minutes
Value:
67
Vehicle controls validity:
not applicable
Negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
Remarks:
Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
An in vitro skin irritation study was conducted with Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics (GS190) in accordance with OECD Test Guideline 439 and in compliance with GLP. The in vitro assay did not indicate any skin irritation potential.
Executive summary:

Skin irritation is expressed as the remaining cell viability after exposure to the test substance. The relative mean tissue viability obtained after 15 minutes treatment with the test substance compared to the negative control tissues was 67%. Since the mean relative tissue viability for Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics was above 50% after 15 minutes treatment the test substance is considered to be non-irritant.

 

The positive control had a mean cell viability of 21% after 15 minutes exposure. The absolute mean OD570(optical density at 570 nm) of the negative control tissues was slightly below laboratory historical control data range. The standard deviation value of the percentage viability of three tissues treated identically was less than 15%, indicating that the test system functioned properly.

Endpoint:
skin irritation: in vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
09 July - 07 August 2014
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has been performed according to OECD and/or EC guidelines and according to GLP principles.
Justification for type of information:
The hypothesis for the analogue approach is that the test substance, Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics, contains constituents which are also constituents of the target substance, Hydrocarbons, C11-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics. The two substances have some constituents in common and contain no functional groups that are structural alerts for skin sensitisation. The substances therefore have qualitatively similar properties (RAAF Scenario 2 applies). A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 404 (Acute Dermal Irritation / Corrosion)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method B.4 (Acute Toxicity: Dermal Irritation / Corrosion)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 870.2500 (Acute Dermal Irritation)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (JMAFF), 12 Nohsan, Notification No 8147, April 2011, including the most recent partial revisions.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Species:
rabbit
Strain:
New Zealand White
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
- Source: Charles River France, L’Arbresle Cedex, France
- Age at study initiation: Animals used withihn the study were between 12 and 24 weeks old.
- Weight at study initiation: Body weights were at least 1.5 kg.
- Housing: Animals were housed individually in cages with perforated floors.
- Diet: Free access to pelleted diet for rabbits (Global Diet 2030 from Harlan Teklad, Italy). Hay and wooden sticks were available during the study period.
- Water: Free access to tap water.
- Acclimation period: At least 5 days

Environmental controls for the animal room were set to maintain 18 to 24°C, a relative humidity of 40 to 70%, approximately 15 room air changes/hour, and a 12-hour light/12-hour dark cycle. Any variations to these conditions were maintained in the raw data and had no effect on the outcome of the study.

IN-LIFE DATES: From: 09 July - 07 August 2014
Type of coverage:
semiocclusive
Preparation of test site:
shaved
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Controls:
other: Adjacent areas of the untreated skin of each animal served as controls.
Amount / concentration applied:
TEST MATERIAL
- Amount applied: 0.5 mL
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Single application.
Observation period:
14 days.
Number of animals:
3 males.
Details on study design:
STUDY DESIGN
The study was performed in a stepwise manner and was started by treatment of a single rabbit (sentinel). The two other animals were treated in a similar manner three weeks later, after considering the degree of skin irritation observed in the first animal.

TEST SUBSTANCE PREPARATION
The test substance was applied undiluted as delivered by the sponsor.

TEST SITE
Approximately 24 hours before treatment, the dorsal fur was clipped with electric clippers, exposing an area of approximately 150 square centimeters (10x15 cm). To facilitate scoring, treated skin areas were re-clipped at least 3 hours before the observations.

The test substance was applied to the skin of one flank, using a patch of 2x3 cm.

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
Four hours after the application, the dressing was removed and the skin cleaned of residual test substance using tap water.

OBSERVATIONS
- Mortality/Viability: Twice daily.
- Toxicity: At least once daily.
- Body Weight: Day of treatment (prior to application) and after the final observation.
- Necropsy: No necropsy was performed according to protocol.
- Irritation: The skin reactions were assessed at approximately 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours and/or 7 days and/or 14 days after the removal of the dressings and test substance. Readings were done under true light using Philips Master TL-5 HO 49 watt/840. The irritation scores and a description of all other (local) effects were recorded. Adjacent areas of the untreated skin of each animal served as controls.

SCORING SYSTEM:
The irritation was assessed according to the numerical scoring system according to OECD 404.
Irritation parameter:
erythema score
Basis:
animal #1
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
1.33
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 7 days
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritation parameter:
edema score
Basis:
animal #1
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
1.33
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 14 days
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritation parameter:
erythema score
Basis:
animal #2
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0.66
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 72 hours
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritation parameter:
edema score
Basis:
animal #2
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0.33
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 48 hours
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritation parameter:
erythema score
Basis:
animal #3
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
1
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 72 hours
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritation parameter:
edema score
Basis:
animal #3
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
1.33
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 7 days
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritant / corrosive response data:
Irritation: Four hours exposure to 0.5 mL of Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics resulted in well-defined erythema and slight oedema in the treated skin areas of the three rabbits. Scaliness was noted for one animal, 7 days after exposure. The skin irritation had completely resolved within 72 hours, 7 days or 14 days after exposure.

Corrosion: There was no evidence of a corrosive effect on the skin.
Other effects:
Coloration/remnants: No staining of the treated skin by the test substance was observed and no test substance remnants were seen.

Toxicity/mortality: No symptoms of systemic toxicity were observed in the animals during the test period and no mortality occurred.
Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
Remarks:
Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
An in vivo skin irritation/corrosion study with Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics in the rabbit was conducted based on the OECD 404 test guideline. Rabbits were exposed skin for 4 hours using a semi-occlusive dressing to the test material and evaluated at 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours and/or 7 and/or 14 days after exposure. Exposure to Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics resulted in well defined erythema and slight oedema in the treated skin areas of the three rabbits. Scaliness was noted for one animal, 7 days after exposure. The skin irritation had completely resolved within 72 hours, 7 days or 14 days after exposure. Based on these results Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics does not have to be classified for skin irritation according to the GHS.
Executive summary:

Primary skin irritation/corrosion study with Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics in the rabbit (4-hour semi-occlusive application).

 

The study was carried out based on the guidelines described in:

OECD No.404, "Acute Dermal Irritation/Corrosion" (2002)

EC, No 440/2008; B4: "Acute Toxicity: Dermal Irritation/Corrosion"

US EPA, OPPTS 870.2500 (1998), Acute Dermal Irritation 

JMAFF Guidelines (2000), including the most recent revisions.

 

Three rabbits were exposed to 0.5 mLof Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics by application onto clipped skin for 4 hours using a semi-occlusive dressing. Skin reactions were assessed 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours and/or 7 and/or 14 days after exposure.

 

Exposure to Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics resulted in well-defined erythema and slight oedema in the treated skin areas of the three rabbits. Scaliness was noted for one animal, 7 days after exposure. The skin irritation had completely resolved within 72 hours, 7 days or 14 days after exposure.

 

Based on these results Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics does not have to be classified and has no obligatory labelling requirement for skin irritation according to the:

- Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) of the United Nations (2011)(including all amendments),

- Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (including all amendments).

Endpoint:
skin irritation: in vitro / ex vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
30-Jun-2014 to 07-Jul-2014
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has been performed according to OECD and/or EC guidelines and according to GLP principles.
Justification for type of information:
The hypothesis for the analogue approach is that the test substance, Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics, contains constituents which are also constituents of the target substance, Hydrocarbons, C11-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics. The two substances have some constituents in common and contain no functional groups that are structural alerts for skin sensitisation. The substances therefore have qualitatively similar properties (RAAF Scenario 2 applies). A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method B.46 (In Vitro Skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Epidermis Model Test)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 439 (In Vitro Skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Epidermis Test Method)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Amount / concentration applied:
TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 25 µl

NEGATIVE CONTOL:
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 10 µl Phosphate buffered saline

POSITIVE CONTROL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 10 µl
- Concentration (if solution): 5% (aq) Sodium dodecyl sulphate
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Exposure:15 minutes
Post incubation period: 42 hours
Details on study design:
TEST SITE
- Area of exposure: human epidermis model
- % coverage: 0.38 cm2

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing (if done): phosphate buffered saline
- Time after start of exposure: 15 minutes

POST INCUBATION PERIOD
- 42 hours

SCORING SYSTEM:
- After a 42 hour incubation period, determination of the cytotoxic (irritancy) effect was performed. Cytotoxicity is expressed as the reduction of mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity measured by formazan production from MTT at the end of the treatment. Cell viability was calculated for each tissue as a percentage of the mean of the negative control tissues.
Irritation / corrosion parameter:
% tissue viability
Run / experiment:
Time point: 15 minutes.
Value:
93
Vehicle controls validity:
not applicable
Negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
Remarks:
Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
An in vitro skin irritation study was conducted with Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics (GS215) in accordance with OECD test guideline 439 and in compliance with GLP. The in vitro assay did not indicate any skin irritation potential.
Executive summary:

Skin irritation is expressed as the remaining cell viability after exposure to the test substance. The relative mean tissue viability obtained after 15 minutes treatment with Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics compared to the negative control tissues was 93%. Since the mean relative tissue viability for Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics was above 50% after 15 minutes treatment Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics is considered to be non-irritant.

 

The positive control had a mean cell viability of 11% after 15 minutes exposure. The absolute mean OD570 (optical density at 570 nm) of the negative control tissues was within the laboratory historical control data range. The standard deviation value of the percentage viability of three tissues treated identically was less than 5%, indicating that the test system functioned properly.

Endpoint:
skin irritation: in vitro / ex vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
21-Jul-2014 to 28-Jul-2014
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
The hypothesis for the analogue approach is that the test substance, Hydrocarbons, C14-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics, contains constituents which are also constituents of the target substance, Hydrocarbons, C11-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics. The two substances have some constituents in common and contain no functional groups that are structural alerts for skin sensitisation. The substances therefore have qualitatively similar properties (RAAF Scenario 2 applies). A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method B.46 (In Vitro Skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Epidermis Model Test)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 439 (In Vitro Skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Epidermis Test Method)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Amount / concentration applied:
TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 25 µl

NEGATIVE CONTOL:
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 10 µl Phosphate buffered saline

POSITIVE CONTROL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 10 µl
- Concentration (if solution): 5% (aq) Sodium dodecyl sulphate
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Exposure:15 minutes
Post incubation period: 42 hours
Details on study design:
TEST SITE
- Area of exposure: human epidermis model
- % coverage: 0.38 cm2

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing (if done): phosphate buffered saline
- Time after start of exposure: 15 minutes

POST INCUBATION PERIOD
- 42 hours

SCORING SYSTEM:
- After a 42 hour incubation period, determination of the cytotoxic (irritancy) effect was performed. Cytotoxicity is expressed as the reduction of mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity measured by formazan production from MTT at the end of the treatment. Cell viability was calculated for each tissue as a percentage of the mean of the negative control tissues.
Irritation / corrosion parameter:
% tissue viability
Run / experiment:
Time point: 15 minutes
Value:
85
Vehicle controls validity:
not applicable
Negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
Conclusions:
An in vitro skin irritation study was conducted with Hydrocarbons, C14-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics (GS250) in accordance with OECD Test Guideline 439 and in compliance with GLP. The in vitro assay did not indicate any skin irritation potential.
Executive summary:

Skin irritation is expressed as the remaining cell viability after exposure to the test substance. The relative mean tissue viability obtained after 15 minutes treatment with Hydrocarbons, C14-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics compared to the negative control tissues was 85%. Since the mean relative tissue viability for the test substance was above 50% after 15 minutes treatment the test substance is considered to be non-irritant.

 

The positive control had a mean cell viability of 21% after 15 minutes exposure. The absolute mean OD570(optical density at 570 nm) of the negative control tissues was slightly below laboratory historical control data range. The standard deviation value of the percentage viability of three tissues treated identically was less than 7%, indicating that the test system functioned properly.

Endpoint:
skin irritation: in vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1989-12-13 to 1990-02-05
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well-documented study report equivalent or similar to OECD guideline 404: GLP
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 404 (Acute Dermal Irritation / Corrosion)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
six test animals
GLP compliance:
yes
Species:
rabbit
Strain:
New Zealand White
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Hazleton Research Products, Denver, PA
- Age at study initiation: ca. 15 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: ca 2.0-3.0 kg
- Housing: individual
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): restricted diet based on the recommendation of the supplier
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 37 days


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°F): 65-70
- Humidity (%): 40-60
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12


Type of coverage:
semiocclusive
Preparation of test site:
shaved
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Controls:
not required
Amount / concentration applied:
TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 0.5ml

Duration of treatment / exposure:
ca. 4 hours
Observation period:
Dermal responses were evaluated approximately 45 minutes, 24, 48 and 72 hours following patch removal, and on Day 7.

Body weights were recorded on the day of dosing.
Number of animals:
6
Details on study design:
TEST SITE
- Area of exposure: back
- Type of wrap if used: gauze patch which was secured with tape, patch was loosely held in contact with the skin by means of semi-occlusive dressing


REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing (if done): residual test material was removed using reverse osmosis water and paper towels.
- Time after start of exposure: 4h


SCORING SYSTEM: Draize
Irritation parameter:
erythema score
Basis:
mean
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
ca. 1.56
Irritation parameter:
edema score
Basis:
mean
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Interpretation of results:
other: Not irritating
Remarks:
Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
The mean erythema and edema scores for the test material were 1.56 and 0 respectively. Classification as a dermal irritant is not warranted under the new Regulation (EC) 1272/2008 on classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) or under Directive 67/518/EEC for dangerous substances and Directive 1999/45/EC for preparations.
Executive summary:

MRD-89-520 was administered  via semi-occlusive patch for four hours to six male rabbits to assess dermal irritation.  Dermal responses were evaluated at 1, 24, 48, and 72h post-dosing and on Day 7 according to the Draize method of scoring. Dermal responses were observed in all animals.  At the 45 minute, 48 hour and 72 hour observations, three animals displayed well-defined erythema and three displayed very slight erythema.  Four animals were noted with well-defined erythema and two were noted with very slight erythema at the 24 hour observations.  At study termination (Day 7), four animals showed very slight erythema   No other dermal observations were noted during the study.  The mean erythema and edema scores for MRD-89-520 were 1.56 and 0 respectively.  Classification as a dermal irritant is not warranted under the new Regulation (EC) 1272/2008 on classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) or under Directive 67/518/EEC for dangerous substances and Directive 1999/45/EC for preparations.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (not irritating)

Eye irritation

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
eye irritation: in vitro / ex vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
15-Jul-2014
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
The hypothesis for the analogue approach is that the test substance, Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics, contains constituents which are part of the same homologous series as the constituents of the target substance, Hydrocarbons, C11-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics. The two substances have some constituents in common and contain no functional groups that are structural alerts for skin sensitisation. The substances therefore have qualitatively similar properties (RAAF Scenario 2 applies). A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 437 (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU method B.47 (Bovine corneal opacity and permeability test method for identifying ocular corrosives and severe irritants)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Amount / concentration applied:
TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 750 µl per cornea

NEGATIVE CONTROL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 750 µl of physiological saline per cornea

POSITIVE CONTROL
Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 750 µl per cornea
Concentration (if solution): 10% (w/v) Benzalkonium Chloride


Duration of treatment / exposure:
10 minutes
Details on study design:
TEST SITE
- Isolated bovine cornea

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing (if done): yes
- Time after start of exposure: 15 minutes

SCORING SYSTEM:
- After exposure the cornea was thoroughly rinsed to remove the test substance and incubated for 2 hours with fresh medium followed by opacity measurement and the permeability of the corneas was determined after a 90 minutes incubation period with sodium fluorescein.

- The mean opacity and mean permeability values (OD490) were used for each treatment group to calculate an in vitro score:

In vitro irritancy score (IVIS) = mean opacity value + (15 x mean OD490 value).


TOOL USED TO ASSESS SCORE:
- opacitymeter and microplate reader

DATA EVALUATION:
In vitro score range UN GHS
≤ 3 No Category
> 3; ≤ 55 No prediction can be made
>55 Category 1

Irritation parameter:
in vitro irritation score
Run / experiment:
Time point: 10 minutes
Value:
-0.5
Vehicle controls validity:
not applicable
Negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
Remarks:
Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
An in vitro eye irritation study was conducted with Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics (GS190), in accordance with OECD test guideline 437 and in compliance with GLP. The BCOP test did not indicate an irritancy potential based on either the opacity or permeability endpoints.
Executive summary:

The negative control responses of the opacity and permeability values were less than the upper limits of the laboratory historical range indicating that the negative control did not induce irritancy on the corneas.The mean in vitro irritancy score of the positive control (10% (w/v) Benzalkonium Chloride) was 139 and within the historical positive control data range. It was therefore concluded that the test conditions were adequate and that the test system functioned properly.

Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics did not induce ocular irritation through both endpoints, resulting in a mean in vitro irritancy score of -0.5 after 10 minutes of treatment.

Endpoint:
eye irritation: in vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
14 July - 07 August 2014
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
The hypothesis for the analogue approach is that the test substance, Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics, contains constituents which are also constituents of the target substance, Hydrocarbons, C11-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics. The two substances have some constituents in common and contain no functional groups that are structural alerts for skin sensitisation. The substances therefore have qualitatively similar properties (RAAF Scenario 2 applies). A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 405 (Acute Eye Irritation / Corrosion)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method B.5 (Acute Toxicity: Eye Irritation / Corrosion)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 870.2400 (Acute Eye Irritation)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (JMAFF), 12 Nohsan, Notification No 8147, April 2011, including the most recent partial revisions.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Species:
rabbit
Strain:
New Zealand White
Details on test animals or tissues and environmental conditions:
- Source: Charles River France, L’Arbresle Cedex, France
- Age at study initiation: Animals used withihn the study were between 12 and 24 weeks old.
- Weight at study initiation: Body weights were at least 1.5 kg.
- Housing: Animals were housed individually in cages with perforated floors.
- Diet: Free access to pelleted diet for rabbits (Global Diet 2030 from Harlan Teklad, Italy). Hay and wooden sticks were available during the study period.
- Water: Free access to tap water.
- Acclimation period: At least 5 days

Environmental controls for the animal room were set to maintain 18 to 24°C, a relative humidity of 40 to 70%, approximately 15 room air changes/hour, and a 12-hour light/12-hour dark cycle. Any variations to these conditions were maintained in the raw data and had no effect on the outcome of the study.

Environmental controls for the animal room were set to maintain 18 to 24°C, a relative humidity of 40 to 70%, approximately 15 room air changes/hour, and a 12-hour light/12-hour dark cycle. Any variations to these conditions were maintained in the raw data and had no effect on the outcome of the study.

IN-LIFE DATES: From: 14 July - 07 August 2014
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Controls:
other: One eye of each animal remained untreated and served as the reference control.
Amount / concentration applied:
TEST MATERIAL- Amount applied: 0.1 mL
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Single instillation on Day 1.
Observation period (in vivo):
The eyes of each animal were examined approximately 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours after instillation of the test substance
Number of animals or in vitro replicates:
3 males
Details on study design:
STUDY DESIGN
The study was performed in a stepwise manner and was started by treatment of a single rabbit (sentinel). The two other animals were treated in a similar manner three weeks later, after considering the degree of eye irritation observed in the first animal.

TREATMENT
Each animal was treated by instillation of 0.1 mL of the test substance, in the conjunctival sac of one of the eyes after gently pulling the lower lid away from the eyeball. The lids were then gently held together for about one second to prevent loss of the test substance. The other eye remained untreated and served as the reference control. Immediately after the 24-hour observation, a solution of 2% fluorescein (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) in water (adjusted to pH 7.0) was instilled into both eyes of each animal to quantitatively determine corneal epithelial damage. Immediately after fluorescein examination on Day 2, in order to provide a continued level of systemic analgesia, buprenorphine 0.01 mg/kg and meloxicam (Metacam®, Boehringer Vetmed GmbH, Ingelheim/Rhein, Germany) 0.5 mg/kg were administered by subcutaneous injection. After the final observation, the animals were sacrificed by intra-venous injection of Euthasol® 20% (AST Farma BV, Oudewater, The Netherlands).

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
-Washing: No

OBSERVATIONS
- Mortality/Viability: Twice daily.
- Toxicity: At least once daily.
- Body Weight: Day of treatment (prior to instillation) and after the final observation.
- Necropsy: No necropsy was performed according to protocol.
- Irritation: The eyes of each animal were examined approximately 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours after instillation of the test substance. Readings were done under true light using Philips Master TL-5 HO 49 watt/840. The irritation scores and a description of all other (local) effects were recorded.

SCORING SYSTEM:
The irritation was assessed according to the numerical scoring system according to OECD 405.
Irritation parameter:
cornea opacity score
Basis:
animal #1
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
4
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritation parameter:
cornea opacity score
Basis:
animal #2
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
4
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritation parameter:
cornea opacity score
Basis:
animal #3
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
4
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritation parameter:
iris score
Basis:
animal #1
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
2
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritation parameter:
iris score
Basis:
animal #2
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
2
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritation parameter:
iris score
Basis:
animal #3
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
2
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritation parameter:
conjunctivae score
Basis:
animal #1
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
3
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritation parameter:
conjunctivae score
Basis:
animal #2
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
3
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritation parameter:
conjunctivae score
Basis:
animal #3
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
3
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritation parameter:
chemosis score
Basis:
animal #1
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
4
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritation parameter:
chemosis score
Basis:
animal #2
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
4
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritation parameter:
chemosis score
Basis:
animal #3
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
4
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritant / corrosive response data:
Irritation: Instillation of 0.1 mL of Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics into one eye of each of three rabbits resulted in irritation of the conjunctivae, which consisted of redness in all animals and discharge in one animal. The irritation had completely resolved within 24 hours in all animals. No iridial irritation or corneal opacity were observed, and treatment of the eyes with 2% fluorescein 24 hours after test substance instillation revealed no corneal epithelial damage.

Corrosion: There was no evidence of ocular corrosion.
Other effects:
Colouration/Remnants: No staining of (peri) ocular tissues by the test substance was observed and no test substance remnants were seen.

Toxicity/Mortality: No symptoms of systemic toxicity were observed in the animals during the test period and no mortality occurred.
Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
Remarks:
Very sligthly irritating but not sufficient for classification Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
An in vivo acute eye irritation/corrosion study with Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics was carried out based on the OECD 405 guideline. Single samples of 0.1 ml of Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics were instilled into one eye of each of three rabbits. Observations were made 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours after instillation. Instillation of the test substance resulted in irritation of the conjunctivae, which consisted of redness in all animals and discharge in one animal. The irritation had completely resolved within 24 hours in all animals. Based on these results, Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics does not have to be classified and has no obligatory labelling requirement for eye irritation according to the GHS.
Executive summary:

Acute eye irritation/corrosion study with Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics in the rabbit.

 

The study was carried out based on the guidelines described in:

OECD No.405 (2012) "Acute Eye Irritation / Corrosion"

EC, No 440/2008, B5: "Acute Toxicity: Eye Irritation/Corrosion"

EPA, OPPTS 870.2400 (1998): "Acute Eye Irritation"

JMAFF Guidelines (2000), including the most recent revisions.

 

Single samples of 0.1 mL of Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics were instilled into one eye of each of three rabbits. Observations were made 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours after instillation.

 

Instillation of the test substance resulted in irritation of the conjunctivae, which consisted of redness in all animals and discharge in one animal. The irritation had completely resolved within 24 hours in all animals.

 

Based on these results, Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics does not have to be classified and has no obligatory labelling requirement for eye irritation according to the:

- Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) of the United Nations (2011) (including all amendments),

- Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (including all amendments).

Endpoint:
eye irritation: in vitro / ex vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
08 July 2014
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
The hypothesis for the analogue approach is that the test substance, Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics, contains constituents which are also constituents of the target substance, Hydrocarbons, C11-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics. The two substances have some constituents in common and contain no functional groups that are structural alerts for skin sensitisation. The substances therefore have qualitatively similar properties (RAAF Scenario 2 applies). A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 437 (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU method B.47 (Bovine corneal opacity and permeability test method for identifying ocular corrosives and severe irritants)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Amount / concentration applied:
TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 750 µl per cornea

NEGATIVE CONTROL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 750 µl of physiological saline per cornea

POSITIVE CONTROL
Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 750 µl per cornea
Concentration (if solution): 10% (w/v) Benzalkonium Chloride


Duration of treatment / exposure:
15 minutes
Details on study design:
TEST SITE
- Isolated bovine cornea

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing (if done): yes
- Time after start of exposure: 15 minutes

SCORING SYSTEM:
After exposure the cornea was thoroughly rinsed to remove the test substance and incubated for 2 hours with fresh medium followed by opacity measurement and the permeability of the corneas was determined after a 90 minutes incubation period with sodium fluorescein.

- The mean opacity and mean permeability values (OD490) were used for each treatment group to calculate an in vitro score:

In vitro irritancy score (IVIS) = mean opacity value + (15 x mean OD490 value).


TOOL USED TO ASSESS SCORE:
- opacitymeter and microplate reader

DATA EVALUATION:
In vitro score range UN GHS
≤ 3 No Category
> 3; ≤ 55 No prediction can be made
>55 Category 1

Irritation parameter:
in vitro irritation score
Run / experiment:
Mean, 10 minutes treatment
Value:
0
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
Remarks:
not irritant or corrosive, no classification is required Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
An in vitro eye irritation study was conducted with Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics (GS215), in accordance with OECD test guideline 437 and in compliance with GLP. The BCOP test did not indicate an irritancy potential based on either the opacity or permeability endpoints.
Executive summary:

The negative control responses for opacity and permeability were less than the upper limits of the laboratory historical range indicating that the negative control did not induce irritancy on the corneas.The mean in vitro irritancy score of the positive control (10% (w/v) Benzalkonium Chloride) was 141 and was within the historical positive control data range. It was therefore concluded that the test conditions were adequate and that the test system functioned properly.

 

Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics did not induce ocular irritation through both endpoints, resulting in a mean in vitro irritancy score of 0.0 after 10 minutes of treatment.

Endpoint:
eye irritation: in vitro / ex vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
15-Jul-2015
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
The hypothesis for the analogue approach is that the test substance, Hydrocarbons, C14-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics, contains constituents which are also constituents of the target substance, Hydrocarbons, C11-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics. The two substances have some constituents in common and contain no functional groups that are structural alerts for skin sensitisation. The substances therefore have qualitatively similar properties (RAAF Scenario 2 applies). A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 437 (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU method B.47 (Bovine corneal opacity and permeability test method for identifying ocular corrosives and severe irritants)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Amount / concentration applied:
TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): approx. 750 µl per cornea

NEGATIVE CONTROL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 750 µl of physiological saline per cornea

POSITIVE CONTROL
Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 750 µl per cornea
Concentration (if solution): 10% (w/v) Benzalkonium Chloride


Duration of treatment / exposure:
15 minutes
Details on study design:
TEST SITE
- Isolated bovine cornea

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing (if done): yes
- Time after start of exposure: 10 minutes

SCORING SYSTEM:
- . After exposure the cornea was thoroughly rinsed to remove the test substance and incubated for 2 hours with fresh medium followed by opacity measurement and the permeability of the corneas was determined after a 90 minutes incubation period with sodium fluorescein.

- The mean opacity and mean permeability values (OD490) were used for each treatment group to calculate an in vitro score:

In vitro irritancy score (IVIS) = mean opacity value + (15 x mean OD490 value).


TOOL USED TO ASSESS SCORE:
- opacitymeter and microplate reader

DATA EVALUATION:
In vitro score range UN GHS
≤ 3 No Category
> 3; ≤ 55 No prediction can be made
>55 Category 1

Irritation parameter:
in vitro irritation score
Run / experiment:
10 minutes
Value:
0
Vehicle controls validity:
not applicable
Negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation

No permeability measurement was performed with one of the three corneas treated with test substance. This cornea was excluded from the IVIS determination. Since the cornea shifted in the holder after the opacity measurement it was impossible to perform a reliable permeability measurement with Na-fluorescein. It was therefore not possible to calculate an IVIS value for this cornea. Since this cornea gave reliable results for opacity and the other two cornea treated with the test substance gave reliable results for both opacity and permeability, this deviation had no influence on the study results

Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
Conclusions:
An in vitro eye irritation study was conducted with Hydrocarbons, C14-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics (GS250), in accordance with OECD test guideline 437 and in compliance with GLP. The BCOP test did not indicate an irritancy potential based on either the opacity or permeability endpoints.
Executive summary:

The negative control responses of the opacity and permeability values were less than the upper limits of the laboratory historical range indicating that the negative control did not induce irritancy on the corneas.The mean in vitro irritancy score of the positive control (10% (w/v) Benzalkonium Chloride) was 139 and within the historical positive control data range. It was therefore concluded that the test conditions were adequate and that the test system functioned properly.

The test substance did not induce ocular irritation through both endpoints, resulting in a mean in vitro irritancy score of 0 after 10 minutes of treatment.

Endpoint:
eye irritation: in vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1991
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well-documented study report equivalent or similar to OECD guideline 405: GLP.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 405 (Acute Eye Irritation / Corrosion)
GLP compliance:
yes
Species:
rabbit
Strain:
New Zealand White
Details on test animals or tissues and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Hazleton Research Products
- Age at study initiation: ca. 12 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 2.14-2.49 kg
- Housing: individually
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): Agway restricted feeding regimen
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 8 days


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°F): 65-70
- Humidity (%): 40-60%
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12


IN-LIFE DATES: From: 1991-05-09 To: 1997-05-21
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Controls:
other: untreated eye of each animal served as the control
Amount / concentration applied:
TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 0.1ml

Duration of treatment / exposure:
The test material was instilled into the lower conjunctival sac of the right eye of each animal. The upper and lower lids were gently held together for approximately 1 second to prevent loss of the material. The treated eyes remained unwashed.
Observation period (in vivo):
Animals were observed for viability twice daily on Monday-Friday, and once daily on Saturday and Sunday. Observations of signs of ocular irritation were made 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours post-instillation and on Day 7.
Number of animals or in vitro replicates:
six males
Details on study design:

SCORING SYSTEM: Draize


TOOL USED TO ASSESS SCORE: 2% sodium fluorescein dye under UV light
Irritation parameter:
chemosis score
Basis:
mean
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Remarks on result:
other: average of six animals
Irritation parameter:
conjunctivae score
Basis:
mean
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Remarks on result:
other: average of six animals
Irritation parameter:
iris score
Basis:
mean
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Remarks on result:
other: average of six animals
Irritation parameter:
cornea opacity score
Basis:
mean
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Remarks on result:
other: average of six animals
Interpretation of results:
other: Not irritating
Remarks:
Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
The mean corneal opacity, iris lesion, conjunctivae redness, and chemosis scores for MRD-91-972 were all 0. Classification as an ocular irritant is not warranted under the new Regulation (EC) 1272/2008 on classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) or under Directive 67/518/EEC for dangerous substances and Directive 1999/45/EC for preparations.
Executive summary:

MRD-91-972 was administered to the right eye of six male rabbits to assess for ocular irritation. Ocular examinations occurred at 1h, 24h, 48h, 72h, and day 7 post instillation. Ocular damage was assessed and scored according to the Draize eye test. All animals survived the exposure. Ocular instillation of the test material elicited conjunctival irritation limited to redness noted in five of the six test animals at the 1 hour observation.  No other signs of ocular irritation were noted during the study.  The mean corneal opacity, iris lesion, conjunctivae redness, and chemosis scores for MRD-91-972 were 0, 0, 0, and 0 respectively. Classification as an ocular irritant is not warranted under the new Regulation (EC) 1272/2008 on classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) or under Directive 67/518/EEC for dangerous substances and Directive 1999/45/EC for preparations.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (not irritating)

Respiratory irritation

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

There are no data available for Hydrocarbons, C11-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics. However, in vitro and in vivo data are available for structural analogues, Hydrocarbons, C9-C11, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics, Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics; Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics; Hydrocarbons, C14-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics; Hydrocarbons, C14-C19, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics, and isohexadecane. These data are read across to Hydrocarbons, C11-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics based on analogue read across and a discussion and report on the read across strategy is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13

Skin Irritation

Hydrocarbons, C9-C11, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics

In a key skin irritation study (ExxonMobil, 1990), the test material was administered via semi-occlusive patch for four hours to six male rabbits to assess dermal irritation. Dermal responses were evaluated at 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours post-dosing and on Day 7 according to the Draize method of scoring. Dermal responses were observed in all animals. At the 45-minute, 48-hour and 72-hour observations, three animals displayed well-defined erythema and three displayed very slight erythema. Four animals were noted with well-defined erythema and two were noted with very slight erythema at the 24-hour observations. At study termination (Day 7), four animals showed very slight erythema   No other dermal observations were noted during the study. The mean erythema and edema scores for MRD-89-520 were 1.56 and 0 respectively. Classification as a dermal irritant is not warranted under Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP).

Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics

Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics has been tested in an in vitro assay conducted according to OECD TG 439 and in compliance with GLP (WIL Research, 2014a). The test substance was applied to a human three-dimensional epidermal model, EPISKIN-SM, for 15 minutes. The positive control had mean relative skin viability (the measure of irritancy) of 21%, and an optical density at 570 nm slightly below the historical control data range. The mean relative skin viability of the test substance was 67%, so it was concluded that the test substance is non-irritant under the conditions of this test.

Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics

Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics has been tested in an in vitro assay conducted according to OECD TG 439 and in compliance with GLP (WIL Research, 2014b). The test substance was applied to a human three-dimensional epidermal model, EPISKIN-SM, for 15 minutes. The positive control had mean relative skin viability (the measure of irritancy) of 11%, and an optical density at 570 nm within the historical control data range. The mean relative skin viability of the test substance was 93%, so it was concluded that the test substance is non-irritant under the conditions of this test.

 

An in vivo skin irritation/corrosion study with Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics in the rabbit was conducted based on the OECD 404 test guideline (WIL Research 2014c). Rabbits were exposed skin for 4 hours using a semi-occlusive dressing to the test material and evaluated at 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours and/or 7 and/or 14 days after exposure. Exposure to Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics resulted in well-defined erythema and slight oedema in the treated skin areas of the three rabbits. Scaliness was noted for one animal, 7 days after exposure. The skin irritation had completely resolved within 72 hours, 7 days or 14 days after exposure.

Hydrocarbons, C14-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics

Hydrocarbons, C14-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics has been tested in an in vitro assay conducted according to OECD TG 439 and in compliance with GLP (WIL Research, 2014d). The test substance was applied to a human three-dimensional epidermal model, EPISKIN-SM, for 15 minutes. The positive control had mean relative skin viability (the measure of irritancy) of 21%, and an optical density at 570 nm within the historical control data range. The mean relative skin viability of the test substance was 85%, so it was concluded that the test substance is non-irritant under the conditions of this test.

Hydrocarbons, C14-C19, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics

In a supporting study (ExxonMobil, 1995), conducted according to OECD guideline N°404, six young adult male New Zealand White rabbits were dermally exposed to 0.5 mL of the test material. Test sites were covered with a semi-occlusive dressing for 4 hours. The skin reactions were assessed at 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours after removal of the dressing. The mean score was calculated across 3 scoring times for all animals at 24, 48 and 72 hours after patch removal. The mean scores over 24, 48 and 72 hours were 0.0 for erythema and for oedema. Based on the criteria provided under CLP Regulation 1272/2008, the test material is not considered as irritating to the rabbit skin.

Hydrocarbons, C15-C19, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics

Hydrocarbons, C15-C19, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics has been tested in an in vitro assay conducted according to OECD TG 439 and in compliance with GLP (WIL Research, 2014e). The test substance was applied to a human three-dimensional epidermal model, EPISKIN-SM, for 15 minutes. The positive control had mean relative skin viability (the measure of irritancy) of 21%, and an optical density at 570 nm very slightly below the historical control data range. The mean relative skin viability of the test substance was 91%, so it was concluded that the test substance is non-irritant under the conditions of this test.

Isohexadecane

In a supporting study (Hill Top Research, Inc., 1994), a clinical test including 15 human volunteers was conducted and isohexadecane applied undiluted on upper arm in occlusive conditions (patch) for 24 h. Skin reactions were scored 30 min and 24 h after removal of the patch. Mild signs of irritation were observed in only 3 volunteers and only slight signs of irritation in 8 volunteers in worse conditions (24-h exposure, occlusive conditions), leading to the conclusion that isohexadecane is not an irritant for the human skin.

In another supporting study (INEOS, 1980), the skin irritating properties of isohexadecane was assessed in White Vienna rabbits (3 animals of both sexes). The test substance was applied on a wipe put in contact with the shaved skin under semi-occlusive dressing for 24 hours. At the end of exposure, skin reactions were recorded both at 24 hours (patch removal) and 48 hours after the end of exposure (i.e. 72 -hour time observation) according to the Draize scale. Complete observation time was 14 days. Moreover, the behavior, general state and food consumption were also observed. Body weight was measured every day. There was a very slight erythema (score 1) in two rabbits at patch removal (observation time = 24h). At the 72-hour observation, no erythema was observed in all 6 animals. No oedema was noted in any animal at any observation time. No systemic effect was observed following exposure to isohexadecane. Behavior, general state, fur, food consumption and body weight development were normal. Under these test conditions, the substance was not classified as a skin irritant according to CLP Regulation 1272/2008.

Based on these data, the weight of evidence for Fischer-Tropsch process-derived hydrocarbon solvents indicates that Hydrocarbons, C11-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics is not irritating to skin.

 

Ocular Irritation

Hydrocarbons, C9-C11, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics

In a key ocular irritation study (ExxonMobil, 1991), the test material was administered to the right eye of six male rabbits to assess for ocular irritation. Ocular examinations occurred at 1h, 24h, 48h, 72h, and day 7 post instillation. Ocular damage was assessed and scored according to the Draize eye test. All animals survived the exposure. Ocular instillation of the test material elicited conjunctival irritation limited to redness noted in five of the six test animals at the 1 -hour observation. No other signs of ocular irritation were noted during the study. The mean corneal opacity, iris lesion, conjunctivae redness, and chemosis scores for the test material were 0, 0, 0, and 0 respectively. Classification as an ocular irritant is not warranted under Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP).

Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics

Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics has been tested in a bovine corneal opacity in vitro assay (BCOP test) conducted according to OECD TG 437 and in compliance with GLP (Shell, 2014). The endpoints assessed in this assay are opacity and permeability; negative and positive controls gave expected results. The test substance did not induce ocular irritation as assessed by both endpoints.

Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics

An in vivo acute eye irritation/corrosion study with Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics was carried out based on the OECD 405 guideline (WIL Research, 2014h). Single samples of 0.1 ml of Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics were instilled into one eye of each of three rabbits. Observations were made 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours after instillation. Instillation of the test substance resulted in irritation of the conjunctivae, which consisted of redness in all animals and discharge in one animal. The irritation had completely resolved within 24 hours in all animals.

Hydrocarbons, C14-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics

Hydrocarbons, C14-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics has been tested in a bovine corneal opacity in vitro assay (BCOP test) conducted according to OECD TG 437 and in compliance with GLP (WIL Research, 2014i). The endpoints assessed in this assay are opacity and permeability; negative and positive controls gave expected results. The test substance did not induce ocular irritation as assessed by both endpoints.

Hydrocarbons, C15-C19, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics

Hydrocarbons, C15-C19, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics has been tested in a bovine corneal opacity in vitro assay (BCOP test) conducted according to OECD TG 437 and in compliance with GLP (WIL Research, 2014g). The endpoints assessed in this assay are opacity and permeability; negative and positive controls gave expected results. The test substance did not induce ocular irritation as assessed by both endpoints.

Isohexadecane

In a supporting study (INEOS, 1980), the irritant potential of the substance isohexadecane was assessed by applying 0.1 mL of the test substance in the conjunctival sac of the left eye of 6 male Himalayan rabbits. After application the animals' lids were kept closed for 1 second. The right eye was used as control and received 0.1 mL of physiological NaCl solution. The eyes were examined and the changes were graded according to a numerical scale at 15 min, 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours after dosing. No conjunctival chemosis, corneal and iridial lesion were observed throughout the observation period. Slight redness of the conjunctivae was observed in all animals at 1 hour but only in one animal by the 24 hours after instillation. At 48-hour observation period, no redness was observed in any rabbit. Hence, the mean individual score for redness was 0.33-0.0-0.0. Isohexadecane is not classified as eye irritant according to CLP Regulation 1272/2008.

Based on these data, the weight of evidence for Fischer-Tropsch process-derived hydrocarbon solvents indicates that Hydrocarbons, C11-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics is not irritating to eyes.

Respiratory Irritation

No studies were located to indicate that Hydrocarbons, C11-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics is a respiratory irritant.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Skin Irritation:

Based on available in vitro and in vivo read across data, Hydrocarbons, C11-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics does not meet the criteria for classification for skin Irritation according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP).

 

Ocular Irritation:

Based on available in vitro and in vivo read across data, Hydrocarbons, C11-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics does not meet the criteria for classification as ocular irritants according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP).

Respiratory Irritation:

There are no studies that warrant classification as a respiratory irritant according to Regulation (EC) 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP).