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Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

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Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Justification for type of information:
Please refer to the category approach justification provided in section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.43 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: Source, WoE, 3055-93-4, BASF, 1997, R9700266
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.18 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Remarks on result:
other: Source, WoE, 3055-93-4, BASF, 1997, R9700266
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
waterfree test substance
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: Source, WoE, 9002-92-0, Sasol, 1997, 2904
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
1.1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
water free test substance
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: Source, WoE, 9002-92-0, Sasol, 1997, 2904
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
water free test substance
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: Source, WoE, 9002-92-0, Sasol, 1997, 2904
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other:
Remarks:
Source, WoE, 5274-68-0, BASF, 1997, R9700225
Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
18 - 21 MAR 1997
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: EU-Guideline 92/69/EWG
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Desmodesmus subspicatus (previous name: Scenedesmus subspicatus)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source (laboratory, culture collection): Pflanzenphysiol. Inst. der Universität Göttingen
- Age of inoculum (at test initiation): 3 - 4 days
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Test temperature:
23.2 - 23.4 °C
pH:
Test start: 8.0 - 8.1
Test end: 8.0 - 8.2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: 0, 088, 0.194, 0.427, 0.939, 2.07, 4.55 and 10 mg/L
analytical: mean values: 113.7% for the test concentrations 2.07 and 10 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 300 mL Erlenmeyer flasks filled with 100 mL test medium
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): no renewal - static test
- Initial cells density: 10 exp. 4 cells/mL
- Control end cells density: 3.1 exp. 5 cells/mL
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 3
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 3


GROWTH MEDIUM
- Standard medium used: yes, mineral salt medium according to EU-Guideline 92/69/EWG



OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: continuous illumination
- Light intensity and quality: 2000 lux
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.43 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC0
Effect conc.:
0.088 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.18 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
biomass

 

Cell number

Concentration
[mg/L]

Test period (h)

24 h

48 h

72 h

Control

4.0 × 104

7.6 × 104

3.1 × 105

0.088

4.6 × 104

7.4 × 104

3.3 × 105

0.194

2.8 × 104

6.0 × 104

1.1 × 105

0.427

2.3 × 104

3.6 × 104

5.5 × 104

0.939

1.8 × 104

1.5 × 104

9.3 × 103

2.07

1.8 × 104

1.6 × 104

1.1 × 104

4.55

1.6 × 104

1.3 × 104

5.9 × 103

10

1.4 × 104

1.3 × 104

5.8 × 103

Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: 92/69/EWG
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Desmodesmus subspicatus (previous name: Scenedesmus subspicatus)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source (laboratory, culture collection): "Institut für Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene", Berlin, Germany
- Age of inoculum (at test initiation): 3 days
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Test temperature:
23.4 - 23.8 °C
pH:
Test start: 8.2 - 8.3
Test end: 7.8 - 9.3
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 6.4 and 12.8 mg/L
as recovery rates were > 80%, biological results were reported on the basis of nominal test concentrations
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Erlenmeyer flask, steril
- Aeration: yes
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): no renewal as static test
- Initial cells density: 20000 cells/mL
- Control end cells density: 124 x 10^4
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 5
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 8

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Sterile test conditions: yes
- Light intensity and quality: 8000 lux, white

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
- Determination of cell concentrations: [counting chamber; electronic particle counter; fluorimeter; spectrophotometer; colorimeter]: photometer - adsorption at 685 nm
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
waterfree test substance
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
1.1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
waterfree test substance
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks:
waterfree test substance
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
waterfree test substance
Basis for effect:
biomass
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
0.62 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
waterfree test substance
Basis for effect:
biomass
 Test concentration      [mg/L]

 Cell density [x 104/ml]         

 Incubation period [h]         

 0 24  48   72

 0

 2  13  33  124
 0.4  2  9  34  128
 0.8  2  8  35  114
 1.6  2  6  9  24
3.2   2  3  4  3
 6.4  2  4  3  2
 12.8  2  3  2
Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
10 - 14 MAR 1997
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: EU-Guideline 92/69/EWG
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Desmodesmus subspicatus (previous name: Scenedesmus subspicatus)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source (laboratory, culture collection): Pflanzenphysiol. Inst. der Universität Göttingen
- Age of inoculum (at test initiation): 3 - 4 days
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Test temperature:
22.8 - 23.0 °C
pH:
Test start: 7.5 - 7.8
Test end: 7.8 - 8.2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 mg/L
analytical: mean values: 65.5% for the test concentrations 1.6 and 3.2 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 300 mL Erlenmeyer flasks filled with 100 mL test medium
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): no renewal - static test
- Initial cells density: 10 exp. 4 cells/mL
- Control end cells density: 5.9 exp. 5 cells/mL
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 3
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 3


GROWTH MEDIUM
- Standard medium used: yes, mineral salt medium according to EU-Guideline 92/69/EWG



OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: continuous illumination
- Light intensity and quality: 2000 lux
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC0
Effect conc.:
0.26 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.92 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
biomass

 

Cell number

Concentration
[mg/L]

Test period (h)

24 h

48 h

72 h

Control

5.7 × 104

1.8 × 105

5.9 × 105

0.05

5.9 × 104

1.9 × 105

6.2 × 105

0.1

6.2 × 104

2.0 × 105

6.7 × 105

0.2

5.9 × 104

2.0 × 105

7.0 × 105

0.4

5.8 × 104

1.7 × 105

5.8 × 105

0.8

5.6 × 104

1.5 × 105

5.0 × 105

1.6

3.7 × 104

6.8 × 104

1.5 × 105

3.2

2.8 × 104

3.8 × 104

5.7 × 104

Description of key information

ErC20 (72h) >=3.23 - <= 5.67 mg/L for Desmodesmus subspicatus (QSAR estimation)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10 or NOEC for freshwater algae:
3.23 mg/L

Additional information

Since no data for decan-1-ol, ethoxylated, 1-2.5EO (CAS 26183-52-8) are available, the toxicity to aquatic algae is assessed on the basis of data from studies with three similar alcohol ethoxylates (C12, 2EO; CAS 3055-93-4, C12, 4 EO; CAS 9002-92-0 and C12, 4 EO; CAS 5274-68-0). For all three analogue substances effects on the growth of the green algae Scenedesmus subspicatus were investigated according to EG-Guideline 92/69/EWG (Sasol, 1997 and BASF, 1997a, 1997b). The effect and no effect values are in a narrow range between 0.43 to 1.8 mg/L for ErC50 (72h) and 0.088 to 0.4 mg/L for NOEC (72h). As aquatic toxicity increases with an increase in the length of the hydrocarbon chain the resulting effect values can therefore be considered as a worst case assumption.

However, the data allow not to derive a precise effect value for the described mixture (decan-1-ol, ethoxylated, 1-2.5EO; CAS 26183-52-8). Alcohol ethoxylate specific QSARs were developed to describe the toxicity of varying mixtures (Wind & Belanger, 2006; Boeije et al., 2006; Belanger et al, 2006). The QSARs considered all three trophic levels (algae, invertebrates and fish). The effects are described as EC20 values, since the QSARs are more robust for the EC20 values than for NOEC or EC10 values (Boeije et al., 2006). For the described mixture decan-1-ol, ethoxylated, 1-2.5EO (CAS 26183-52-8) the QSAR for long-term toxicity for on green algae Desmodesmus subspicatus (Wind & Belanger, 2006) result in an EC20-value between 1.16 and 2.04 mg/L based on biomass and between 3.22 and 5.67 mg/L based on growth rate, respectively. The result on growth (ErC20) is used as key value for the further assessment.