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Toxicological information

Genetic toxicity: in vitro

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH

1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH (ENDPOINT LEVEL)
Cetyl esters is a constituent of a broader group of cosmetic ingredients, the alkyl esters, which consist ofthe reaction products of fatty acids and alcohols. The 237 alkyl esters being reviewed in a safety assessment by The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel).
The ingredients in this review are alkyl esters. The substance of interest (2-ethylhexyl 12-hydroxyoctadecanoate) is a member of the category group.
The members have the same functions, similar metabolic pathways and similar hazardous profile.

2. CATEGORY APPROACH JUSTIFICATION (ENDPOINT LEVEL)
Data considered in the CIR safety assessment of the group of substances were judged as reliabile and adequate for the purpose of the REACH registration and to fill the gap information.

(i) A clear substance characterisation is available: in the category definition (Fiume MM. et al., 2015) a description of the category members is available in the category members are listed in a table. A general chemical structure of the members is also provided. That means the chemical identity of chemicals is sufficiently clear for a meaningful assessment of the proposed read-across. where necessary, the degree of purity is reported.
(ii) description of the substances: a clear and unambiguous description of each member of the category is submitted (Name, CAS and/or EC number and chemical structure for the source substance and for the target)
(iii) similarity (characteristics in common between substances): the members of the category are alkyl esters. The core relationship between these ingredients is a carboxyl ester functional group flanked on both sides by extended alkyl chains.
structural differences: some of these alkyl chains are saturated and some are unsaturated, and some of the chains are straight and some branched.
(iv) The study that was reported for is considered as adequate and reliable for the purpose of the
prediction based on read-across: the study results are adequate for the purpose of classification and labelling and risk assessment.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Safety Assessment of Alkyl Esters as Used in Cosmetics
Author:
Fiume MM. et al.
Year:
2015
Bibliographic source:
Int J Toxicol. 2015; 34(2 Suppl): 5S-69S.

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
- Principle of test: a suspension of bacterial cells are exposed to the test substance in the presence and/or in the absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system.
In the plate incorporation method, these suspensions are mixed with an overlay agar and plated immediately onto minimal medium. In the preincubation method, the treatment mixture is incubated and then mixed with an overlay agar before plating onto minimal medium. For both techniques, after two or three days of incubation, revertant colonies are counted and compared to the number of spontaneous revertant colonies on solvent control plates.
- Short description of test conditions: S. typhimurium was tested
- Parameters analysed / observed: genotoxicity effects
GLP compliance:
not specified
Remarks:
This experimental study was reviewed in The Cosmetic lngredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) which assess the safety of 237 alkyl esters for use in cosmetics. The year is referred to the publication of the assessment.
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
not specified
Details on test material:
- State of aggregation: not specified
- Particle size distribution: not specified
- Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD): not specified
- Geometric standard deviation (GSD): not specified
- Shape of particles: not specified
- Surface area of particles: not specified
- Crystal structure: not specified
- Coating: not specified
- Surface properties: not specified
- Density: not specified
- Moisture content: not specified
- Residual solvent: not specified
- Activation: not specified
- Stabilisation: not specified
- Other: not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
SOURCE OF TEST MATERIAL
- Source and lot/batch No.of test material:
no data
- Expiration date of the lot/batch:
no data
- Purity test date:
no data

RADIOLABELLING INFORMATION (if applicable)
- Radiochemical purity:
not applicable
- Specific activity:
not applicable
- Locations of the label:
not applicable
- Expiration date of radiochemical substance:
not applicable

STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material:
no data
- Stability under test conditions:
no data
- Solubility and stability of the test substance in the solvent/vehicle:
no data
- Reactivity of the test substance with the solvent/vehicle of the cell culture medium:
no data

TREATMENT OF TEST MATERIAL PRIOR TO TESTING
- Treatment of test material prior to testing:
no data
- Preliminary purification step (if any):
no data
- Final dilution of a dissolved solid, stock liquid or gel:
no data
- Final preparation of a solid:
-

FORM AS APPLIED IN THE TEST (if different from that of starting material)
: no data

TYPE OF BIOCIDE/PESTICIDE FORMULATION (if applicable)
not applicable

OTHER SPECIFICS:
- measurement of pH, osmolality, and precipitate in the culture medium to which the test chemical is added:
no data
- other information: The Cosmetic lngredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 237 alkyl esters for use in cosmetics.

Method

Target gene:
Salmonella/microsome test
Species / strain
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium, other: not specified
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Metabolic activation:
not specified
Metabolic activation system:
not specified
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
not specified
Vehicle / solvent:
not specified
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
not specified
Rationale for test conditions:
not specified
Evaluation criteria:
not specified
Statistics:
not specified

Results and discussion

Test results
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium, other: not specified
Metabolic activation:
not specified
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
not specified
Untreated negative controls validity:
not specified
True negative controls validity:
not specified
Positive controls validity:
not specified
Additional information on results:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Not genotoxic in the Salmonella/microsome test
Executive summary:

Not genotoxic in the Salmonella/microsome test