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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method C.2 (Acute Toxicity for Daphnia)
Version / remarks:
(2008)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Version / remarks:
(2004)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Concentration of 100 mg/L was measured at 0 and 48 hours; and concentration of 0 mg/L at 48 hours only.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Routinely, the samples were analysed immediately. Only in exceptional cases, they were stored overnight deep frozen and protected from light.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
To produce the only test item concentration, 284.0 mg of the test item were weighed out and were added directly to 1 litre of dilution water and stirred for 24 h on a magnetic stirrer. The pH was measured to be 8.1.
50 mL of the solution were taken and 0.5 mL of dilution water containing 10 daphnids were given to each replicate. For the test item concentration and the control 2 replicates were prepared.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
- Name: Daphnia magna STRAUS, parthenogenetic females
- Source: Strain of Bundesgesundheitsamt Berlin
- Maintenance and Acclimatisation: A population of parthenogenetic females of synchronized age structure has been maintained for more than 15 years in the test facility under constant temperature conditions (20 +/- 1 °C) at a 16 : 8 hour light-dark photoperiod (light intensity:
< 20 µE x m-2 x s-1). The culture water (so-called 'M4 medium') was partly renewed once a week. The Daphnia were exclusively fed unicellular green algae (Desmodesmus subspicatus) 'ad libitum'. Mortalities of parent Daphnia during the culture period were recorded daily in a semi-quantitative way. The neonates were separated from their parent Daphnia by filtration prior to the acute test.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
16 °dH (= 286 mg/L CaCO3)
Test temperature:
19.4 - 19.9 °C measured at each test vessel at the beginning and thr end of the test
pH:
8.0 - 8.1 measured at each test vessel at the beginning and thr end of the test
Dissolved oxygen:
7.5 - 9.1 mg/L with 90 - 99 % saturation measured at each test vessel at the beginning and thr end of the test
Nominal and measured concentrations:
100 mg/L (nominal) plus control
The results are expressed in terms of nominal concentrations concentrations at 48 h. Effective concentrations correspond to 104.1 % of nominal values at 0 hours and to 99.9 % of nominal values at 48 hours.
Details on test conditions:
Pretreatment of test item and preparation of test item concentrations:
To produce the only test item concentration, 284.0 mg of the test item were weighed out and were added directly to 1 litre of dilution water and stirred for 24 h on a magnetic stirrer.
The pH was measured to be 8.1.
50 mL of the solution were taken and 0.5 mL of dilution water containing 10 daphnids were given to each replicate. For the test item concentration and the control 2 replicates were prepared.
Test system:
- Test vessels: 100 mL glass beakers covered with watch glasses holding 10 neonates in 50 mL of test medium
- Experimental design: 1 test concentration plus 1 control, 10 neonates per vessel, 2 replicates per concentration/control, no feeding during the exposure period, static system
- Method of initiation: neonates were placed in prepared media
- Photoperiod: 16 h light : 8 h dark
- Temperature of incubation unit: 20.2 to 20.3°C
- Aeration: none
- Test item concentration: 100 mg/L (active ingredient)
- Method of administration: direct weighing
- Medium renewal: none
- Duration of exposure: 48 hours
- Criteria of effects: The criterion of adverse effects used in this study was the item-induced alteration of the normal mobility behaviour and the loss of locomotory actions of the neonates, observed at 48 hours.

Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC0
Effect conc.:
>= 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC100
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
The test medium exhibited a too strong colouration to observe immobility and behaviour of the daphnids at 24 hours. To verify immobilisation and abnormalities at 48 hours daphnids were placed in clear dilution medium.
No toxic effects against Daphnia were observed at a limit test concentration of 100 mg/L of the test item.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
(- The immobilisation and other abnormalities in the controls did not exceed 10 % by the end of the test. - The dissolved oxygen concentration remained above 3 mg/L throughout the exposure period.)
Conclusions:
Daphnia magna was exposed under static conditions for 48 hours to one concentration (100 mg/L) of the test substance. No toxic effect was obseved.
Executive summary:

In order to test acute toxicity to invertebrates of the substance Daphnia magna was expoded to the test solution of one nominal concentration of the test substance (100 mg/L) and blank control solution for a period of 48 hours under static conditions. The test medium exhibited a too strong colouration to observe immobility and behaviour of the daphnids at 24 hours. To verify immobilisation and abnormalities at 48 hours daphnids were placed in clear dilution medium and recorded at 24 and 48 hours. The measured concentrations confirmed that deviation from the nominal concentration was less than 20 % (measured concentration were in the range of 99.9 - 104.1 % of nominal concetrations). No toxic effect and abnormal behavior were obsevered. This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirements for the acute Daphnia study.

Description of key information

Daphnia magna was exposed under static conditions for 48 hours to one concentration (100 mg/L) of the test substance. No toxic effect was obseved.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
100 mg/L

Additional information

Key value should read > 100 mg/L

In accordance with REACH Regulation, Art. 3, and ECHA "Guidance for identification and naming of substances under REACH and CLP" v1.2, March 2012, substances have to be separated from solvents if this is not affecting the stability of the substance or changing its composition.

In this case, separation of water would only be possible by thermical damaging of the substance. Furthermore, it was not possible to spray dry the pigment solution as it stuck to and partly melted on the conus dryer.