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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Description of key information

14 -d EC10 = 11 mg V/kg soil dw (ISO 11269 -2, Hordeum vulgare, shoot yield)

Corrected for the molecular weight of vanadylhydrogenphosphate-hemihydrate (CAS no. 93280-40-1): 14-d EC10 = 37 mg /kg soil dw

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for terrestrial plants:
37 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information

Data on the toxicity of vanadylhydrogenphosphate-hemihydrate (CAS no. 93280-40-1) terrestrial plants are not available; therefore, a read-across approach to structurally similar pentavalent vanadium substances was performed.

Baken et al. (2011) investigated the effects of V (CAS 13718-26-8) in five different natural soils on root growth of Hordeum vulgare according to ISO 11269-1 under GLP. The test substance was either freshly applied to the soil or aged prior to exposure. The 5-d EC10 values ranged from 24 to 370 mg V/kg soil dw. This study yields results on short-term effects of vanadium to terrestrial plants.

The other available data below investigates the long-term effects on terrestrial plants. These results should be regarded in a weight-of-evidence approach in order to take account of a higher number of species and different types of soil.

Baken et al. (2011) used the same soils as in the short-term test to study the growth of plants according to ISO 11269-2 under GLP. Two species were tested: Hordeum vulgare and Lycopersicon esculentum. The 14-d EC10 for H. vulgare ranged from 14 to 180 mg V/kg soil dw. The 14-d EC10 for L. esculentum was 11 to 160 mg V/kg soil dw.

Smith et al. (2013) investigated the shoot yield of five different plant species in artificial soil with an exposure period of 4 to 5 weeks. No guideline was followed for this early seedling growth toxicity test. The following species were tested: Panicum virgatum, Prunella vulgaris, Elymus virginicus, Lycopus americanus, and Lactuca sativa. The NOEC of all five species was 28 mg V/kg soil dw.

Wang and Liu (1999) investigated in a 45-days pot experiment the effects of vanadium on the growth of soybean seedlings (Glycine max) in two soils. No guideline was followed. The test substance was ammonium trioxovanadate (CAS 7803-55-6). There was no difference between root and shoot yield in the experiments, but there was a difference between the two soils. The 45-d NOEC was determined as 97 and >=110 mg V/kg soil dw.

The highest sensitivity was determined for Hordeum vulgare with a 14-d EC10 of 11 mg V/kg soil dw (Baken et al., 2011).

For the assessment of the toxicity of vanadylhydrogenphosphate-hemihydrate (CAS no. 93280-40-1), the effect value based on the vanadium concentration must be corrected for the molecular weight of vanadylhydrogenphosphate-hemihydrate (29.4% V). The corrected effect values are given above (see “Description of key information”).