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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
other information
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: No standard method, but study with enough details.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
A six weeks test in sand.
- Endpoints: Percentage emergence was noted daily. After six weeks survival, leaf necrosis, shoot and root length, number of lateral roots, fresh weight and photosynthesis were recorded.  Photosynthesis was determined spectrophotometrically from methanol extract and calculated using MacKinney equation.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Species:
other: Picea glauca
Species:
other: Picea glauca
Duration:
42 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
2.8 other: g/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: seedling emergence and seedling growth

- Effect data:
Emergence: percentage germination was significantly less in 20 mM and higher 
Survival: significant decrease at 50 mM and higher
Root length: significant reduction in length from 20 mM and higher
Number of lateral roots: significant decrease from 50 mM and higher
Leaf necrosis: significant necrosis in 50 mM and higher
Fresh weight: reduction in 50 mM and higher
Photosynthesis: Chlorophyll content did not change compared to the control

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
other information
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: No standard method, but study with enough details.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
A six weeks test in sand.
- Endpoints: Percentage emergence was noted daily. After six weeks survival, leaf necrosis, shoot and root length, number of lateral roots, fresh weight and photosynthesis were recorded.  Photosynthesis was determined spectrophotometrically from methanol extract and calculated using MacKinney equation.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Species:
other: Picea mariana
Species:
other: Picea mariana
Duration:
42 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
2.8 other: g/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: seedling emergence and seedling growth

- Effect data:
Emergence: percentage germination was significantly less in 100 mM. 
Survival: significant decrease at 100 mM and higher
Shoot length: significant reduction in 50 mM and higher
Root length: significant reduction in length from 20 mM and higher
Number of lateral roots: significant decrease from 50 mM and higher
Leaf necrosis: no significant necrosis
Fresh weight: reduction in 50 mM and higher
Photosynthesis: Chlorophyll content did not change compared to the control

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
other information
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: No standard method, but study with enough details.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
A six weeks test in sand.
- Endpoints: Percentage emergence was noted daily. After six weeks survival, leaf necrosis, shoot and root length, number of lateral roots, fresh weight and photosynthesis were recorded.  Photosynthesis was determined spectrophotometrically from methanol extract and calculated using MacKinney equation.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Species:
other: Pinus banksiana
Species:
other: Pinus banksiana
Duration:
42 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
1.4 other: g/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: seedling emergence and seedling growth

- Effect data:
Emergence: germination was significantly enhanced at 20 mM.
At 250 mM the germination was only 7% 
Survival: significant decrease at 50 mM and higher
Shoot length: significant reduction in 50 mM and higher
Root length: significant reduction in length from 10 mM and higher
Number of lateral roots: significant decrease from 10 mM and higher
Leaf necrosis: significant from 50 mM on
Fresh weight: reduction in 50 mM and higher
Photosynthesis: Chlorophyll content did not change compared to the control

Description of key information

Adverse effects on the root length and the number of lateral roots of Pinus banksiana was observed after 42 days of exposure to 1.4 g/L solution of sodium sulfate.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Croser et al. (2001) studied the toxicity of sodium sulfate to three coniferous species (Picea glauca, Pinus banksiana and Picea mariana) following the application of increased sodium sulfate concentrations, 0, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 250 mM to surface of trays containing seeds . The method was not standardized, however it was  described and the parameters  (seed germination, survival, biomass, injuries on shoots and roots) are the same as those in the OECD 208 Guideline “Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test”. This publication was considered as Klimisch 2, valid with restrictions. Amongst the three species tested, Pinus banksiana appeared to be the most sensitive to sodium sulfate with adverse effect on the root length and the number of lateral roots affected at 10 mM (1.4 g/l) of the applied solution. For the other species, adverse effects were observed at the higher concentration of 20 mM (2.8 g/L). Since the quantity of sand  was not reported, it is not possible to calculate the sand concentrations of sodium sulfate. However based on this study, it can be seen that 2 plants on the 3 tested did not show any adverse effect at the high treatment solution of 1.4 g/L.